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    Original Name: Quintus Horatius Flaccus
    Known AS: Horace
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Unknown (probably freedman)
    Mother Name: Unknown
    Date of Birth: 08 December 65 BC
    Birth Place: Venusia, Lucania, Roman Republic (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 27 November 8 BC (age 56)
    Death Place: Rome, Roman Empire (now Italy)
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Grammaticus Orbilius in Rome
    Occupation: Soldier, Poet
    Language: Latin
    Genres: Lyric poetry
    Nationality: Ancient Rome
    Notable Work(s): Odes, Satires, Ars Poetica

    Quintus Horatius Flaccus or Horace (08 December 65 BC – 27 November 8 BC) is considered as the best Roman lyric poet during the time of Caesar Augustus. He was a member of literary circle which included Virgil and Lucius Varius Rufus. He is best known for his lyric poetry, Odes considered as the only Latin lyrics worth reading by the rhetorician Quintilian.

    Early Life:
    Quintus Horatius Flaccus was born on 08 December 65 BC in Venusia, Lucania, Roman Republic (now Italy). First, he studied at a finest school in Rome, the Grammaticus Orbilius. In 45 BC, he went to Athens to study Greek and philosophy at the best school. In 44 BC, after the assassination of Julius Caesar, Horace joined the army where he served under the generalship of Brutus. In 42 BC, he became staff officer and fought in the Battle of Philippi. In the battle, Marc Antony and Augustus defeated the army of Brutus and Horace back to Rome. After then, Horace's family's property was confiscated.

    Personal Life:
    A little is known about Horace personal life. His father was a Roman freedman who had a small farm in Venusia. Horace's mother is completely unknown.

    Later Life & Death:
    In Rome, Horace got a job as clerk to the quaestor. In 38 BC, he acquainted with Maecenas, who was an advisor to Augustus. In 35 BC, he published his first book entitled Satires. During this time, Maecenas gifted him an estate near Tibur in the Sabine Hills where Horace spent much of his time. In 30 BC, he published Epodes. In 23 BC, he published first three part of Odes. When Virgil died in 19 BC, Horace become the most important poet in the city of Rome. In 13 BC, he published 4th and last part of Odes. Quintus Horatius Flaccus or Horace died on 27 November 8 BC.

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    Full Name: Marcus Junius Brutus
    Known AS: Brutus
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder (d. 77 BC)
    Mother Name: Servilia Caepionis (170-42 BC)
    Father (adoptive): Quintus Servilius Caepio
    Date of Birth: June, 85 BC
    Birth Place: Rome, Italia, Roman province (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 23 October, 42 BC (aged 43)
    Death Place: Macedonia, Roman province (now Italy)
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Political Leader
    Reign: 58 BC – 42 BC
    Nationality: Ancient Rome


    Marcus Junius Brutus was born on early June, 85 BC in Rome, Italia, Roman province (now Italy). In 59 BC, his uncle Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him as son. In 44 BC, after the assassination of Julius Caesar, Brutus revived his adoptive name. In 42 BC, he fought in the Battle of Philippi where Marc Antony and Augustus defeated him. Marcus Junius Brutus died on 23 October, 42 BC at 43 years old.

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    Original Name: Marcus Antonius
    Known AS: Mark Antony
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Marcus Antonius Creticus
    Mother: Julia Antonia
    Date of Birth: 14 January 83 BC
    Birth Place: Rome, Roman Republic (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 01 August 30 BC (aged 53)
    Death Place: Alexandria, Ptolemaic Kingdom (now Egypt)
    Gender: Male
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Military, Head of State
    Nationality: Ancient Rome


    The Roman politician and general Mark Antony (14 January 83 BC-01 August 30 BC) was the main opponent of Augustus for the succession to the power of Julius Caesar. He was defeated by Augustus in the last of the civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic.

    Marcus Antonius or Mark Antony was born on 14 January 83 BC in Rome, Roman Republic (now Italy). He was related to Julius Caesar by his mother side and served under Caesar in Gaul from 53 BC to 50 BC. In 49 BC, he move to Rome to become tribune. In 42 BC, Mark Antony and Augustus defeated the army of Marcus Brutus at the Battle of Philippi. In 31 BC, Augustus defeated Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium and forced him to flee to Alexandria in Egypt. When Augustus's army surrounded Alexandria, Mark Antony committed suicide by falling on his sword on 01 August 30 BC.

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    Full Name: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Stephen Longfellow (lawyer)
    Mother: Zilpha Wadsworth
    Wife: Mary Storer Potter (m. 1831)
    Wife: Frances Appleton (m. 1843)
    Son: (two sons)
    Daughter: (three daughters)
    Date of Birth: 27 February 1807
    Birth Place: Portland, Maine, United States
    Date of Death: 24 March 1882 (aged 75)
    Death Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MA
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Pisces
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Portland Academy, Bowdoin College (1822-25)
    Occupation:Poet, Author
    Professor: Bowdoin College (1826), Harvard University (1834-54)
    Nationality: United States
    Major Writings:Voices of the Night (1839); Ballads and Other Poems (1841); Evangeline (1847);  Hiawatha (1855); The Courtship of Miles Standish (1858); Paul Revere's Ride (1860); Tales of a Wayside Inn (1863)


    Early Life & Childhood:
    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born on 27 February 1807 in Portland, Maine, United States. At the age of the three, he was enrolled in a dame school. In 1813, he was shifted to the private Portland Academy where studied until the age of fourteen. In 1822, Longfellow admitted at the Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. In 1825, he completed his graduation. In 1826, Longfellow accepted the new Chair in Bowdoin College where he taught Modern Languages. In later 1826, he started his his European tour and visit Spain, Italy, France, Germany and England. In England, he influenced by the works of Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron and Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1829, he returned to America.

    Personal Life:
    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow father, Stephen Longfellow was a lawyer and his mother named Zilpha Wadsworth. He was the second of the eight children of his parents. On September 14, 1831, Longfellow married his childhood friend, Mary Storer Potter but she was died on 29 November 1835. In 1843, he married again to Frances Appleton. They had six children (two sons and three daughters). Frances died on a fire accident in 1861.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1833, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published his first book which was a translation of the poetry of poet Jorge Manrique. In 1834, he was appointed professor of Modern Languages at Harvard College. In 1839, he published his collections of poetry, Voices of the Night and Hyperion. In 1841, Longfellow published his popular book of poetry collection Ballads and Other Poems. In 1842, he published a play, titled The Spanish Student. In 1854, he took retirement form Harvard University. In 1859, He was honoured doctorate of Laws from Harvard. In 1867, he published the translation of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. He died on March 24, 1882. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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    Full Name: George Henry Lewes
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: John Lee Lewes
    Mother Name: Elizabeth Ashweek
    Wife: Agnes Jervis (m. 1841)
    Girlfriend:George Eliot (1854–1878)
    Date of Birth: 18 April 1817
    Birth Place: London, England
    Date of Death: 30 November 1878 (aged 61)
    Death Place: London, England
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Highgate Cemetery East, London, England
    Gender: Male
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Dr Charles Burney's school
    Occupation:Philosopher
    Nationality: England
    Major Writings:The Physical Basis of Mind; The Life of Goethe; Ranthorpe; Aristotle


    Early life & Childhood:
    George Henry Lewes was born on London, England in 18 April 1817. His father, John Lee Lewes was a minor poet and his mother named Elizabeth Ashweek. Lewes was educated in London, Jersey, Brittany. Finally, he studied at Dr Charles Burney's school in Greenwich. In 1836, he appertained to a club formed for the study of philosophy. Two years later, Lewes moved to Germany to study philosophy.

    Later life & Death:
    George Henry Lewes became became friends with Leigh Hunt. Then he met John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle and Charles Dickens. In 1841, he married Agnes Jervis. In 1851, Lewes met writer Marian Evans, (later George Eliot). In July 1854, Lewes visited Weimar and Berlin with Evans. In Germany, they close to Victorian society include Charles Dickens, Friedrich Engels, Baruch Spinoza and Wilkie Collins. George Henry Lewes died on 30 November 1878. He was buried at Highgate Cemetery East, London, England.

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    Full Name: Jeremy Bentham
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Jeremiah Bentham (lawyer)
    Mother Name: Alicia Grove Bentham
    Brother: Samuel Bentham
    Girlfriend: Polly Dunkley
    Date of Birth: 15 February 1748
    Birth Place: Spitalfields, London, England
    Date of Death: 06 June 1832 (aged 84)
    Death Place: London, England
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Remains: Mummified, University College, London, England
    Gender: Male
    Religion: Atheist
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: High School: Westminster School, London, England
                     :University: BA, Queen's College, Oxford University (1763)
                     :University: MA, Queen's College, Oxford University (1766)
    Occupation:Philosopher, Economist
    Notable Ideas: Greatest happiness principle
    Influenced By: Protagoras, Epicurus, John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu, Thomas Hobbes, Cesare Beccaria
    Influenced:John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, Michel Foucault, Peter Singer, John Austin, Robert Owen, David Pearce
    Major Writings:An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation; A Fragment on Government; The Classical Utilitarians; Theory of Legislation; Pannomial FragmentsThe Works of Jeremy Bentham


    British philosopher, economist, jurist and social reformer Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 06 June 1832) is considered as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Influenced by Epicurus, John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu, Helvétius, Thomas Hobbes; Bentham formulated an honorable concept grounded in a largely empiricist account of human nature.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Jeremy Bentham was born on 15 February 1748 in Spitalfields, London, England. At the age of 7, he was sent to Westminster School where he studied Greek and Latin verse writing. In 1760, Bentham admitted to Queen’s College in Oxford. In 1763, he got a Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1766, he completed his Master's degree in Arts. He trained as a lawyer and in 1769, he was called to the bar to practice. In 1776, Bentham published his first book, A Fragment on Government.

    Personal Life:
    A little known about Jeremy Bentham personal life. His father and grandfather was lawyer. His father name was Jeremiah Bentham. His mother name was Alicia Grove Bentham. In 1776, Bentham fell in love with Polly Dunkley. But his father didn't accepted their relation. Bentham never married.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1781, Jeremy Bentham became associated with the Earl of Shelburne during his travaled of Russia. In 1788, he returned to England. In 1789, Bentham published Principles of Morals and Legislation. In 1824, Bentham joined with James Mill. They found the Westminster Review. A journal of the philosophical radicals where also contribute Lord Byron, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Thomas Carlyle. He died on 06 June 1832. Jeremy Bentham was not buried. His remains mummified and kept at University College, London, England.

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    Full Name: Epicurus
    Known AS: Founder of the Epicurean School
    Father Name: Neocles (teacher)
    Mother Name: Chairestrate
    Marital Status: Never Married
    Date of Birth: 04 February 341 BC
    Birth Place: Samos, Athens, Greece
    Date of Death: 270 BC (aged 72)
    Death Place: Athens, Greece
    Cause of Death: Kidney Stones
    Gender: Male
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Philosopher
    Nationality: Ancient Greece
    Major Writings:Letter on happiness, Epicurea
    Influenced:Thomas Hobbes, Immanuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Jefferson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Michel Onfray, David Hume, Philodemus, Michel Foucault, Pierre Gassendi, Han Ryner


    Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus (341 BC-270 BC) is one of the famous philosophers in the Hellenistic period. He is considered as the founder of the Epicurean School. Epicurus was the first of the philosophers who supported the atomic theory. His works influenced most of modern philosopher.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Epicurus was born on 04 February 341 BC in Samos, Athens, Greece after six years of Plato's death. He studied philosophy with a Platonist teacher named Pamphilus. At the age of 18, Epicurus moved to Athens where he served his military service for two years. After leaving his military service, he joined with his family in Samos, Athens. Then he studied under Nausiphanes. After that, Epicurus moved to Lampsacus where he founded a school.

    Personal Life:
    Epicurus's father Neocles was a teacher and his mother named Chairestrate. His family immigrated on the Aegean island of Samos before few years of his birth. Epicurus never married.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 306 BC, Epicurus returned to Athens and bought some land. He founded a school on this land named The Garden. Epicurus as well as his school showed an indifferent for the formal logic of Aristotle and the Stoics. Epicurus played an important role to the development of science and the scientific method. His ideas about nature and physics predicted the important scientific concepts of our present time. Epicurus died on 270 BC after suffering from kidney stones.

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    Full Name: James Mill
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: James Mill (shoemaker)
    Mother: Isabel Fenton
    Wife: Harriet Burrow (m. 1805)
    Son:John Stuart Mill (philosopher)
    Date of Birth: 06 April 1773
    Birth Place: Northwater Bridge, Angus, Scotland
    Date of Death: 23 June 1836 (aged 63)
    Death Place: Kensington, London, England
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Gender: Male
    Religion: Agnostic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Montrose Academy, University of Edinburgh
    Occupation:Philosopher, Historian, Economist
    Nationality: Scotland
    Major Writings:The History of British India (1818); Elements of Political Economy (1821); Analysis of the Phenomenon of the Human Mind (1829); A Fragment on Mackintosh


    Scottish historian, economist and philosopher James Mill (06 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) is considered as a founder of classical economics along with David Ricardo. He was the father of philosopher, John Stuart Mill. James was a supporter of Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism and spread the belief of radical philosophy.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    James Mill was born on 06 April 1773 in Northwater Bridge, Angus, Scotland. He was sent to the parish school where he started his education. Then James was admitted to the Montrose Academy. In 1790, he entered at the University of Edinburgh. In October 1798, he was appointed as a minister of the Church of Scotland. In 1802, Mill left the Church and moved to London.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    James Mill's father was a shoemaker, also James Mill and his mother named Isabel Fenton. In 1805, James mill married Harriet Burrow. Their first of nine children John Stuart Mill (philosopher) was born in 1806.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1808, James Mill became a friend and disciple of Jeremy Bentham. He also fully supported his ideas the radical philosophical belief of Utilitarianism. In 1818, Mill finished his major and famous work, The History of British India. In 1824, he joined with Jeremy Bentham and helped establish the Westminster Review. Which was a journal of the philosophical radicals where also contribute Lord Byron, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Thomas Carlyle. James mill died on 23 June 1836.

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    Full Name: Thomas Henry Huxley
    Known AS: Thomas Huxley
    Famous AS:Darwin's bulldog
    Father: George Huxley (d. 1855)
    Mother: Rachel Withers Huxley (d. 1852)
    Wife: Henrietta Anne Heathorn (m. 1855)
    Number of Children: 8 (five daughters and three sons)
    Date of Birth: 04 May 1825
    Birth Place: Ealing, Middlesex, England
    Date of Death: 29 June 1895 (aged 70)
    Death Place: Eastbourne, Sussex, England
    Cause of Death: Heart attack
    Remains: Burried, East Finchley Cemetery, North London, England
    Religion: Agnostic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Imperial College London, University of London
    Occupation:Scientist, Biologist
    Military Service: Royal Navy (1846-54)
    Teacher: School of Mines, London, England (1853)
    Professor: University of London (1856)
    Professor: University of Edinburgh (1875-76)
    Administrator: Governor, Eton College (1879-88)
    Nationality: England
    Influenced By: Edward Forbes, Charles Darwin
    Notable Works: Evolution, Science education, Agnosticism, Man's Place in Nature
    Major Writings:Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863); Critiques and addresses; Science and Christian tradition; Evolution and ethics, and other essays (1886)

    The English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (04 May 1825-29 June 1895) is best known as "Darwin's bulldog". He was the man who fought for the acceptance of Darwin's evolution theory. Huxley worked hard for the development the scientific education in England. He also fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Thomas Henry Huxley was born on 04 May 1825 in Ealing, Middlesex, England. At the age of ten, after only two years of formal schooling, Huxley compelled to leave school for his family's financial difficulties. But he was determined to educate himself. For this purpose, he started reading. First he read works of Thomas Carlyle, James Hutton's Geology, William Hamilton's Logic. Huxley taught himself German. He also learned Latin and enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original. At the aged of 15, he decided to enter the medical profession. Then, Huxley entered at Charing Cross Hospital to study. At Charing Cross Hospital, he gained a small scholarship. In 1845, he passed his First M.B. examination from the University of London and won gold medal for anatomy and physiology. But Huxley didn't present final examination and left without a university degree.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Thomas Henry Huxley's father, George Huxley was a mathematics teacher. He was the seventh of eight child of his parents. In 1855, Thomas Huxley married Henrietta Anne Heathorn (1825–1915). The couple had five daughters and three sons.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1854, Thomas Henry Huxley was appointed as Professor of Natural History at the Royal School of Mines. In 1855, he became naturalist to the British Geological Survey. He worked as Full time Professor at the Royal Institution 1855–58. Then he became Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons 1863–69. Huxley became president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1869–1870. After-that, he served as president of the Royal Society 1883–85 and Inspector of Fisheries 1881–85. In 1885, Huxley retired due to depressive illness. He died on 29 June 1895. Thomas Henry Huxley was buried at East Finchley Cemetery, North London, England.

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    Full Name: Johann Gottfried von Herder
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Unknown
    Mother Nmae: Unknown
    Wife Name: Caroline Flachsland (m. 1773)
    Date of Birth: 25 August 1744
    Birth Place: Mohrungen, East Prussia, Germany
    Date of Death: 18 December 1803 (aged 59)
    Death Place: Weimar, Saxe-Weimar, Germany
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Herderkirche, Weimar, Germany
    Gender: Male
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: University of Königsberg
    Occupation:Philosopher, Poet
    Region: Western philosophy
    Nationality: Germany
    Notable Ideas: Volksgeist
    Influenced:Ľudovít Štúr, Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling
    Major Writings:Fragmente über die neuere deutsche Literatur (1767); Shakespeare (1773); On the Cognition and Sensation of the Human Soul (1778); The Critique of Judgment (1790); Letters for the Advancement of Humanity (1793-97); Metacritique (1799)


    Early Life & Childhood:
    Johann Gottfried von Herder was born on 25 August 1744 in Mohrungen, East Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia (now Germany). He educated himself from his father's Bible and songbook. In 1762, he admitted as a medical student at the local University of Königsberg. But few days later, Herder transferred to theology and studied under Immanuel Kant and Johann George Hamann. In Königsberg, he carefully read works of Plato, David Hume, Gottfried Leibniz, Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1769, he went to the French port of Nantes by ship and kept on his journey to Paris.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    A little known about Johann Gottfried Herder's personal life. He came from a religious middle-class family. His father and mother name is still unknown. In 1773, Herder married Caroline Flachsland.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1767, Johann Gottfried Herder published his first important work, Fragmente über die neuere deutsche Literatur. In 1770, he moved to Strasbourg, where he met the Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In 1772, he published Treatise on the Origin of Language. In 1773, Herder published an important essay on William Shakespeare. Then he published On the Cognition and Sensation of the Human Soul (1778); The Critique of Judgment (1790); Letters for the Advancement of Humanity (1793-97); Metacritique (1799). Johann Gottfried Herder died on 18 December 1803. He was buried at Herderkirche, Weimar, Germany.

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    Birth Name: David Henry Thoreau
    Known AS: Henry David Thoreau
    Nickname: Hank the Crank
    Father Name: John Thoreau (pencil maker)
    Mother Name: Cynthia Dunbar
    Girlfriend: Ellen Seawall and Mary Russell
    Wife Name: Never Married
    Date of Birth: 12 July 1817
    Birth Place: Concord, Massachusetts, United States
    Date of Death: 06 May 1862 (aged 44)
    Death Place: Concord, Massachusetts, United States
    Cause of Death: Tuberculosis
    Remains: Buried, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Massachusetts
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Concord Academy (1828-33), Harvard University (1833-37)
    Occupation:Philosopher, Naturalist, Writer
    Nationality: United States
    Influenced By: Plotinus, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Virgil, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Thomas Carlyle
    Notable Ideas: Abolitionism, Development Criticism, Direct Action, Environmentalism, Simple Living, Tax Resistance
    Major Writings:Civil Disobedience (1849, essay); Walden (1854, nonfiction); Excursions (1863, nonfiction); The Maine Woods (1863, nonfiction); A Yankee in Canada (1866, nonfiction)


    American writer, philosopher, poet and naturalist Henry David Thoreau (12 July 1817 – 06 May 1862) is best known for his book Walden; or, Life in the Woods (1854) and his essay Civil Disobedience (1849). He had close relation with Ralph Waldo Emerson. He wrote books, articles, essays, journals and poetry total over 20 volumes. His writings influenced many following writers include Leo Tolstoy, William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw etc.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    David Henry Thoreau was born on 12 July 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts, United States. After completing formal education, he entered at Concord Academy in 1828 where he studied next five years. In 1833, he admitted at Harvard University. During this time, Thoreau lived in Hollis Hall. In Hollis Hall, he took courses in rhetoric, classics, philosophy, mathematics and science. After completing graduation in 1837, he joined the faculty of the Concord public school. In 1838, he established a grammar school in Concord named Concord Academy with his brother.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    David Henry Thoreau's father, John Thoreau was a pencil maker and ran a pencil factory. Thoreau had romantic relation with several women include Ellen Seawall and Mary Russell. But he never married.

    Later Life & Death:
    After graduation, Henry David Thoreau returned Concord. In Concorn, he met with philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. In 1841, his brother died and Emerson invited to stay with him. In 1849, Thoreau published his most famous essay Civil Disobedience. In 1854, he published his most popular book, Walden which is also known as Life in the Woods. Henry David Thoreau died on 06 May 1862. Most of his work was published after his death include Excursions (1863), The Maine Woods (1864), Cape Cod (1865) and A Yankee in Canada (1866).

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    Full Name: Victor Marie Hugo
    Known AS: Victor Hugo
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828)
    Mother Name: Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821)
    Wife Name: Adèle Fourcher (m. 12-Oct-1822)
    Children: Five (three sons, two daughters)
    Date of Birth: 26 February 1802
    Birth Place: Besançon, France
    Date of Death: 22 May 1885 (aged 83)
    Death Place: Paris, France
    Cause of Death: Infection
    Remains: Buried, Panthéon, Paris, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Pisces
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Lycée Louis-le-Grand
    Occupation:Writer, Playwright, Novelist
    Influenced By:Walter Scott, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, Alphonse de Lamartine, William Shakespeare
    Influenced:Charles Dickens, Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Albert Camus, Oscar Wilde, Gustave Flaubert, Luis Borges
    Major Writings:The Last Day of a Condemned Man (1829); Hernani (Play, 1830); The Hunchback of Notre Dame(Children's literature, 1831); Les Chants du crépuscule (1835); Les Rayons et les ombres (1840); Les Misérables (Novel, Historical fiction, 1862); Ninety-Three (Historical fiction, 1874)


    French poet, novelist and dramatist Victor Hugo (26 February 1802 - 22 May 1885) is one the important figure of the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest along with best known French writers. Hugo is best known for his works, The Hunchback of Notre Dame(1831) and Les Misérables(1862).

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Victor Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besançon, France. His family moved to Paris at his two. He learned about Napoleon from his father. He was raised and educated in Paris by his mother after his parents separation. In 1815, Hugo admitted at the Lycée Louis-le Grand in Paris where he studied next three years. In early age, he wrote verse tragedies and poetry. Hugo also translated Virgil during this time. In 1823, he published his first novel Han D'Islande and then Bug-Jargal (1826).

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Victor Hugo's father, Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) was a general. His mother named Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821). After his parents separation in 1803, he was raised by his mother. In 1821, his mother died. In 1822, Hugo married Adèle Fourcher. The couple had five children (three sons, two daughters).

    Later Life & Death:
    Victor Hugo came to light with his play Hernani (1830). In 1831, he published his famous historical work The Hunchback of Notre Dame. In 1841, Hugo was elected to the Académie française. In later 1841, King Louis-Philippe gave him promotion to higher society. As a result, Hugo became a part of the Higher Chamber and electeed as pair de France. In 1848, he was appointed to the Legislative Assembly and the Constitutional Assembly. In 1851, he was was given exile by Louis Napoleon seizing the power. In 1870, Hugo returned to France. In 1872, he lost the National Assembly election. In 1874, he was elected to the Senate. Victor Hugo died 22 May 1885. He was buried at Panthéon, Paris, France.

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    Full Name: Napoleon Bonaparte
    Known AS: Napoleon I
    Nickname: The Little Corporal
    Father: Carlo Buonaparte (attorney)
    Mother: Marie-Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte
    Wife: Josephine de Beauharnais (m. 1796, div. 1809)
    Wife: Marie Louise (m. 1810)
    Date of Birth: 15 August 1769
    Birth Place: Ajaccio, Corsica, France
    Date of Death: 05 May 1821 (aged 51)
    Death Place: Longwood, Saint Helena, United Kingdom
    Cause of Death: Stomach Cancer
    Remains: Buried, Les Invalides, Paris, France
    Date of Buried: 09 May 1821
    Zodiac Sign: Leo
    Height: 5' 7" (1.70 m)
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: College d'Autun, Military College of Brienne, Military Academy in Paris
    Occupation:Head of State
    Emperor of the French: 18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
                                          :20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
    King of Italy: 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
    Nationality: France


    French military and political leader Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 05 May 1821) was the first emperor of France. He is considered as one of the greatest military leaders in world history. Napoleon came at the latter stages of the French Revolution. He associated this wars in Europe and helped remake the map of Europe.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, France. He started his education at a boys' school in Ajaccio. In 1779, he admitted at French military schools whih for aristocrats to the College of Autun in Burgundy, France. Then he transferred to the College of Brienne where he studied five years. After that he moved to Military Academy in Paris. In 1785, Napoleon lost his father and he became second lieutenant in the French army. In 1792, he took part in a power and struggled as a leader in the fight for Corsican independence.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Napoleon Bonaparte father, Carlo Buonaparte was an attorney. His mother's name Marie-Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte. He was the fourth of eleven children of his parents. On 09 March 1796, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais (1763–1814) but he divorce he in 1809. On 02 April 1810, he married again to Marie Louise (1791-1847), the daughter of Emperor Francis II of Austria.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1798, Napoleon decided to invade Egypt. In May 1798, he invaded Egypt with thirty-five thousand soldiers and within few days Egypt came under his control. In August 1798, British destroyed French ships in the Battle of the Nile and Napoleon left French army. In 1799, he became the First Consul of France. In 1800, he he led Italian army and defeated the Austrians in the Battle of Marengo. Napoleon led his armies to victory after victory. Within 1807, France ruled territory that spread from Portugal to Italy and north to the river Elbe. In 1802, he was defeated in Moscow which was a attempt to conquer the rest of Europe. In 1814, he was exiled to the island of Elba. In 1815, Napoleon returned to Paris and again seized power. In 1815, French army's was defeated by Duke of Wellington at the war of Waterloo. In July 1815, Napoleon surrendered to the British and he was exiled on the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. He died there on 05 May 1821. Napoleon Bonaparte was buried on 09 May 1821 at Les Invalides, Paris, France.

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    Birth Name: Margaret Hilda Roberts
    Full Name: Margaret Hilda Baroness Thatcher
    Known AS: Margaret Thatcher
    Nicknames: Iron Lady, Attilla the Hen, the Milk Snatcher
    Father Name: Alfred Roberts
    Mother Name: Beatrice Roberts
    Husband: Denis Thatcher (m. 13-Dec-1951)
    Son: Mark Thatcher (twin, b. 15-Aug-1953)
    Daughter: Carol Thatcher (twin, b. 15-Aug-1953)
    Date of Birth: 13 October 1925
    Birth Place: Grantham, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom
    Date of Death: 08 April 2013 (aged 87)
    Death Place: London, United Kingdom
    Cause of Death: Stroke
    Gender: Female
    Zodiac Sign: Libra
    Religion: Methodist
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School (1936-43), Oxford University (1943-47)
    Occupation:Head of State, Chemist, Lawyer
    Political Party: Conservative
    Prime Minister: United Kingdom Prime Minister (1979-90)
    Nationality: England
    Author of Books:The Downing Street Years (1993, memoir); The Path To Power (1995); The collected speeches of Margaret Thatcher; Afghanistan


    British politician Margaret Hilda Baroness Thatcher (13 October 1925 - 08 April 2013) was the first and only female Prime Minister of United Kingdom of the 20th century. A Soviet journalist nicknamed her the "Iron Lady". Thatcher served as British Prime Minister in three times from 1979-90.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Margaret Hilda Roberts was born on 13 October 1925 at Grantham in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. She started her formal education at Hunting tower Road Primary School. In 1936, she admitted at the Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School where she studied next seven years. In 1943, Margaret entered at the Oxford University where she studied Chemistry. In 1946, she was elected as President of the Oxford University Conservative Party. In 1947, she completed her post graduation B Sc. degree. In 1949, Margaret moved to Dart Ford to contest for Member of Parliament. She contested as the youngest female Conservative candidate in Dart Ford in 1950 and 1951 elections.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Margaret Hilda Roberts's father, Alfred Roberts was owner of two grocery shops in Grantham and her mother named was Beatrice Roberts. On 13 December 1951, she married Denis Thatcher who was a successful businessman. The couple had two twin children (One son and one daughter). They are born on 15 August 1953 named Mark Thatcher and Carol Thatcher.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1959, Margaret Thatcher was elected as a Member of Parliament. In 1961, she became joint parliamentary secretary for Pensions and National Insurance. In 1967, Embassy of the USA in London selected her to took part in the International Visitor Leadership Program. In the General Election of 1970, she became Secretary of State for Education and Science. In 1975, Margaret challenged Edward Heath for the leadership and became the first woman leader by 130 votes to 119 of the Conservative Party. On 04 May 1979, Margaret Thatcher became the Prime Minister of United Kingdom defeated Labour Party. On 2nd April 1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. Margaret took action and Argentina compelled to surrender on 14th June 1982 which boosted her popularity. As a result, Conservative Party won the 1983 General Election with a majority of 144. In General Election of 1987, she elected as 3rd time. On 28th November 1990, Margaret Thatcher resigned as prime minister. In 1992, she left the House of Commons. In 2007, she was honored with a statue in the House of Parliament. Margaret Thatcher died on 08 April 2013 at the aged of 87.

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    Full Name: Gustave Flaubert
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Achille-Cléophas Flaubert (d. 1846)
    Mother: Anne-Justine-Caroline Fleuriot (d. 1872)
    Sister: Caroline Flaubert (b. 1824)
    Girlfriend: Louise Colet (1846-55, d. Mar-1876)
    Date of Birth: 12 December 1821
    Birth Place: Rouen, France
    Date of Death: 08 May 1880 (aged 58)
    Death Place: Rouen, France
    Cause of Death: Cerebral Hemorrhage
    Remains: Buried, Rouen Cemetery, Rouen, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Collége Royal de Rouen
    Occupation:Novelist, playwright
    Genres: Fictional prose
    Nationality: France
    Influence By:Cervantes, Lord Byron, Honoré de Balzac, Victor Hugo, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Chateaubriand
    Influenced: Anton Chekhov, Jean Paul Sartre, Vladimir Nabokov, Ezra Pound, Ivan Turgenev, Guram Dochanashvili
    Major Writings:Madame Bovary (1857, novel); Salammbo (1862); L'Education Sentimentale(1869); Trois contes (1877, short stories); La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1874); Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881)


    French novelist and dramatist Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 - 08 May 1880) is considered as one of the greatest novelists in Western literature. He was one of the most important forces who presented the modern novel as a deliberate art form. He is best knownfor his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857).

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Gustave Flaubert was born on 12 December 1821 in Rouen, France. He began to write when he was only eight years old. Then Flaubert entered at at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen where he studied until 1840. In 1840, he was to Paris to study law. In Paris, he was known as an indifferent student. He found the city disagreeable. During this time, Flaubert became acquainted some famous people include Victor Hugo. In 1846, he attacked of epilepsy and left Paris along with his low study.

    Personal Life:
    Gustave Flaubert's father, Achille-Cléophas Flaubert was chief surgeon in Rouen and his mother named Anne-Justine-Caroline. He was the fifth of six children of his parents. Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet but he never married.

    Later Life & Death:
    Gustave Flaubert largely influenced by the writing of the renowned French writer Honoré de Balzac. From 1849 to 1850, he went on a long journey to Greece and Egypt. In 1850, he began to write his famous novel Madame Bovary which was published 1857. In 1858, he traveled to Carthage to collect material for his next novel Salammbô which published in 1862. In 1870, Flaubert became very sick, but he continued writing. After that, he wrote Trois contes (1877, short stories); La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1874); Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881). He died on 08 May 1880. Gustave Flaubert was buried at Rouen Cemetery, Rouen, France.

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    Born Name: Paul-Michel Foucault
    Known AS: Michel Foucault
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Paul Foucault (1893–1959)
    Mother Name: Anne Malapert
    Date of Birth: 15 October 1926
    Birth Place: Poitiers, France
    Date of Death: 25 June 1984 (aged 57)
    Death Place: Paris, France
    Cause of Death: AIDS
    Remains: Buried, Cimetière du Vendeuvre, Vienne, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Libra
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Lycée Henri-IV, École Normale Supèriéure
    Occupation:Anthropologist, Philosopher, Historian, Essayist
    Region: Western philosophy
    Nationality: France
    Notable Ideas: Archaeology, Disciplinary Institution, Dispositif, Governmentality, Panopticism, Discursive Formation
    Influenced By:Jeremy Bentham, Jorge Luis Borges, Gustave Flaubert, Friedrich Hegel, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich Hölderlin, Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre


    The French philosopher, historian Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 - 25 June 1984) is considered as one of the most important contributor who made historiography. He also contribute to realizing the forces that make history. His writings on power, knowledge and speech are broadly influential within academics sectors.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Michel Foucault was born on 15 Oct. 1926 in the small town of Poitiers, France. In 1930, he began his education with the Lycée Henri-IV in Paris. In 1939, the 2nd World War started and France was occupied by Nazi Germany till 1945. In 1940, his mother enrolled him in the Collège Saint-Stanislas which was run by the Jesuits. In 1946, Foucault admitted at the École Normale Supèriéure with good academic record. In 1947, he gained a BA degree in Psychopathology. In 1948, he obtained another BA type of degree in Philosophy. In 1951, he passed his agrégation in philosophy on the second try.

    Personal Life:
    A little known about Michel Foucault personal life. His father named Paul Foucault (1893–1959) was a successful local surgeon. His mother named Anne Malapert, daughter of prosperous surgeon Dr. Prosper Malapert. Thought it is known that, Foucault died from an AIDS-related illness but he sometimes discussed with his friends his thoughts of suicide.

    Later Life & Death:
    From 1951, Michel Foucault became a psychology instructor at the ÉNS at Althusser's invitation where he served until 1955. In 1953, he began teaching psychology for one year at the Université Lille Nord de France. In August 1953, Foucault holidayed in Italy where he influenced by the work of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In 1959, he received his doctorat d'état. From 1966 to 1968, he taught at the University of Tunis, Tunisia. In 1970, Foucault was selected as most prestigious academic body of France. He died on 25 June 1984. Michel Foucault was buried at Cimetière du Vendeuvre, Vienne, France.

    Major Writings:
    • Madness and Civilization (1961, non-fiction)
    • Death and the Labyrinth: The World of Raymond Roussel (1963, non-fiction)
    • Birth of the Clinic (1963, non-fiction)
    • The Order of Things (1966, non-fiction)
    • The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969, non-fiction)
    • Discipline and Punish (1975, non-fiction)
    • The History of Sexuality, Vol. I: An Introduction (1976, non-fiction)
    • The History of Sexuality, Vol. II: The Use of Pleasure (1984, non-fiction)
    • The History of Sexuality, Vol. III: The Care of the Self (1984, non-fiction)

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    Full Name: Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges
    Known AS: Jorge Luis Borges
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam
    Mother Name: Leonor Acevedo Suárez
    Wife: Elsa Astete de Millán (m. 1967, div. 1970)
    Wife: María Kodama (m. Apr-1986)
    Date of Birth: 24 August 1899
    Birth Place: Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Date of Death: 14 June 1986 (aged 86)
    Death Place: Geneva, Switzerland
    Cause of Death: Liver Cancer
    Remains: Buried, Cimetière des Rois, Geneva, Switzerland
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education: Collège Calvin (1918)
    Occupation:Writer, Poet, Critic
    Language: Spanish
    Professor: Literature, University of Buenos Aires (1956-1970)
    Nationality: Argentina
    Influenced By:Homer, Virgil, Dante Alighieri, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Jonathan Swift, David Hume, Thomas Carlyle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Walt Whitman, Oscar Wilde, Joseph Conrad, H. G. Wells, Miguel de Cervantes


    Writer, Poet and Critic Jorge Luis Borges (24 August 1899 - 14 June 1986) is considered as one of the most prominent literary heroes of Argentina as well as modern world literature. His writings influenced many contemporary writers include Italo Calvino, Umberto Eco, Ricardo Piglia, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard and many others.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges was born on 24 August 1899 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. His father had a vast library which which inspired his literary ambitions. At the aged of nine, he rendered Oscar Wilde's The Happy Prince into Spanish. Borges was taught at home until his 11. At his 12, he read Shakespeare's works in English. In 1914, his family moved to Switzerland. In 1918, Luis Borges received his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève. After World War I, his family lived Lugano, Barcelona, Majorca, Seville and Madrid next three years. During this time, he read works of Arthur Schopenhauer and Gustav Meyrink which influenced him much. In 1921, his family returned to Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Jorge Luis Borges's father named was Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam and his mother named Leonor Acevedo Suárez. He came from an educated middle-class family. In 1967, Luis Borges married Elsa Astete de Millán but divorced her three years later. On April 1986, he married again to María Kodama.

    Later Life & Death:
    After returned in Buenos Aires, Jorge Luis Borges influenced by the writings of Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl and Jean-Paul Sartre. In 1933, he began working as editor for the newspaper Critica. In 1938, he lost his father. In 1944, his collection of short stories Ficciones published which regarded as his masterwork. In later 1950s, Luis Borges became completely blind. In 1956, he became an instructor at the University of Buenos Aires. In 1957, he obtained the National Prize for Literature from the University of Cuyo. In 1962, he published his collections of English writing, Labyrinths and Ficciones. In 1970, he left his position from the University of Buenos Aires. In 1980, he received Balzan Prize. Jorge Luis Borges died on 14 June 1986. He was buried at Cimetière des Rois, Geneva, Switzerland.

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    Full Name: Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
    Known AS: Miguel de Cervantes
    Nickname: Cripple of Lepanto
    Father: Rodrigo de Cervantes (barber-surgeon)
    Mother: Leonor de Cortinas
    Wife: Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (m. 12-Dec-1584)
    Mistress: Ana Franca de Rojas
    Daughter: Isabel de Saavedra (b. 1584)
    Date of Birth: 29 September 1547
    Birth Place: Alcalá de Henares, Castile, Spain
    Date of Date: 22 April 1616 (aged 68)
    Death Place: Madrid, Castile, Spain
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Convento de los Trinitarios, Madrid, Spain
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Taurus
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education: University of Alcalá, University of Salamanca
    Occupation:Novelist, Playwright, Poet
    Nationality: Spain
    Influenced: José Saramago, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Miguel de Unamuno, Henry Fielding, Voltaire, Dostoyevsky
    Major Writings:Primera Parte de la Galatea (1585, novel); Don Quixote (1605, novel); Novelas Exemplares (1613, short stories); Viage del Parnaso (1614, poetry); Segunda Parte del Ingenioso Cavallero Don Quixote de la Mancha (1615, novel);Los Trabaios de Persiles y Sigismunda, Historia Setentrional (1617, novel)


    Spanish novelist, poet and dramatist Miguel de Cervantes (29 September 1547 - 22 April 1616) is one of the greatest novelist of the Spanish language. He is considered as the first modern novelist and his Don Quixote (1605) is first modern European novel. He was influenced by Virgil along with Greek Philosophy and Italian Renaissance.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Miguel de Cervantes was born on 29 September 1547 in Alcalá de Henares, Castile, Spain. Nothing is known of his life until 1569. He studied philosophy and literature at the University of Alcalá and University of Salamanca. In 1570, Cervantes joined the Spanish forces at Naples, Italy. On 07 October 1571, he took place the naval victory at the Gulf of Lepanto, Greece. In 1575, he returned Spain with his brother, Rodrigo.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Miguel de Cervantes father, Rodrigo de Cervantes was a barber-surgeon. His mother named Leonor de Cortinas. He was the 4th of seven children of his parents. In later 1584, Cervantes married Catalina de Salazar y Palacios. He had one daughter with his mistress Ana Franca de Rojas.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1585, Miguel de Cervantes published his first novel, Primera Parte de la Galatea. After published his book, he got a position with the government. Cervantes served for the Spanish Armada. After that, he worked as a tax collector. In 1605, he published his famous novel, El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha which known as Don Quixote. In 1613, he published his another famous work of short stories, Novelas Exemplares. He died on 22 April 1616 at 68. Miguel de Cervantes was buried at Convento de los Trinitarios, Madrid, Spain.

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    Birth Name: Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Baloalto
    Known AS: Pablo Neruda
    Pen Name: Pablo Neruda
    Nickname Name: Pablo Neruda
    Father: José del Carmen Reyes
    Mother: Rosa Basoalto (d. 1904)
    Wife: Maria Antonieta Hagenaar ( m. 1930, div. 1936, one daughter)
    Daughter: Malva Marina (1934-1942, with Hagenaar)
    Wife: Delia del Carril (m. 1943, div. 1955)
    Wife: Matilde Urrutia (m. 1966, until his death)
    Date of Birth: 12 July 1904
    Birth Place: Parral, Chile
    Date of Death: 23 September 1973 (aged 69)
    Death Place: Santiago, Chile
    Cause of Death: Cancer
    Remains: Buried, Casa de Isla Negra, Santiago, Chile
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education: University of Chile
    Occupation:Poet, Diplomat
    Language: Spanish
    Nationality: Chile
    Notable Award: Nobel Prize in Literature (1971)
    Influenced By:Alexander Pushkin, Jan Neruda, Federico García Lorca, Walt Whitman, Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire, Karl Marx, Marcel Proust, Francisco de Quevedo, Leo Tolstoy


    Poet and Diplomat Pablo Neruda (12 July 1904 - 23 September 1973) is considered one of the greatest Spanish poet of the 20th century. He take his name pen name from poet Jan Neruda. He was a supporter of Communist Party along with Joseph Stalin, Fulgencio Batista and Fidel Castro. Neruda was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Pablo Neruda was born as Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Baloalto on 12 July 1904 in Parral, Chile. At age 13, he initiated his literary career as a contributor to the daily La Mañana. On July 18, 1917, he published his first work, entitled Entusiasmo y perseverancia (an essay). In 1920, during worked for a literary journal, Selva Austral; he got the nickname Pablo Neruda. In 1921, Neruda move to Santiago. In Santiago, he admitted at the Universidad de Chile. In 1927, he took an honorary consulship in Rangoon, then a part of Burma (Myanmar). After that, he he worked in Colombo (Sri Lanka), Batavia (Java) and Singapore. In 1935, the Spanish Civil War began and Neruda recorded the atrocities destiny in his España en el corazón, where he include the execution of his friend Federico García Lorca. From 1940 to 1943, he served as Consul General in Mexico City.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Pablo Neruda's father, José del Carmen Reyes worked for the railroad and his mother, Rosa Basoalto was a teacher. He lost his mother when he was only two month. In 1930, Neruda married Maria Antonieta Hagenaar. She birth a daughter in 1934 named Malva Marina but he divorced her in 1936. In 1943, he married again to Delia del Carril but he also divorced her in 1955. In 1966, Neruda married 3rd times to Matilde Urrutia.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1943, Pablo Neruda returned to Chile after a tour of Peru. On March 4, 1945, he was elected as senator of Communist party for the northern provinces of Antofagasta and Tarapacá. In 1953 Neruda was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize. On Joseph Stalin's death same year, Neruda wrote an ode to him. For protesting against President González Videla's repressive policy, he escaped into exile to Argentina In 1949. In 1952, he he returned home. In 1966, Neruda was invited to attend an International PEN conference in New York City but he was barred from entering the U.S.A becoming a communist. In 1970, he was nominated as a candidate for the Chilean presidency. In 1971, he was awarded Nobel Prize in Literature. He was died on 23 September 1973. Pablo Neruda was buried at Casa de Isla Negra, Santiago, Chile.

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    Full Name: Fidel Alejandro Castro Rúz
    Known AS: Fidel Castro
    Nickname: Don't have Nickname
    Father: Angel Castro y Argiz (1875–1956)
    Mother: Lina Ruz Gonzáles (1903–1963)
    Brother: Raúl Castro (Fidel's successor)
    Wife: Mirta Diaz-Balart (m. 1948, div. 1954)
    Wife: Dalia Soto del Valle (m. 1980 - Present)
    Date of Birth: 13 August 1926
    Birth Place: Birán, Cuba
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Leo
    Religion: Atheist
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education: High School: Belen Jesuit Preparatory School, Havana
                       University: University of Havana (1950)
    Occupation:Head of State, Lawyer
    Prime Minister: Prime Minister of Cuba (1959 - 1976)
    President: President of Cuba (1976 - 2008)
    Political Party: Communist Party of Cuba
    Nationality: Cuba


    Cuban dictator and lawyer Fidel Castro (13 August 1926) is a great revolutionary figure and politician of present world. He served as Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976. In 1976, Fidel Castro became President of Cuba and he served as President of Cuba until 2008. After resigned, he transferred all his duties and powers to his brother, Raul Castro.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Fidel Castro was born on 13 August 1926 in Birán, Cuba. He began his education at at the private Catholic School. After that, he entered at the Belen Jesuit Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in Havana. In Jesuit school, he studied agriculture, history and Spanish. Fidel was also a good athlete and in 1944, he won the prize as Cuba's best all-round. In 1945, he admitted at the University of Havana to study low. In 1947, he joined the Cuban People's Party formed by Eduardo Chibas. In 1951, Chibas died and in 1952, Fidel Castro became a candidate for Congress for the Cuban People's Party as a replacement for Chibás. On 26 July 1953, he attacked the Moncada Army Barracks organizing a group of 123 men and women. Fidel was captured and sentenced to 15 years in prison. In 1955, he was released by a government pardon and sent to Mexico City, Mexico where he met with Che Guevara.

    Personal Life & Marriage:
    Fidel Castro's father, Angel Castro y Argiz (1875–1956) was owner of a sugar plantation and his mother named Lina Ruz Gonzáles (1903–63). In 1948, Fidel married to Mirta Diaz-Balart who birth a son named Fidel Castro Diaz-Balart in 1949 but he divorced her in 1954. In 1980, he married again to Dalia Soto del Valle.

    Later Life:
    In Mexico, Fidel Castro formed a revolutionary group with his brother Raúl Castro and friend Che Guevara. This group became known as the July 26 Movement. After that, he returned Cuba and led the Cuban Revolution against Batista government. In 1959, Batista lost and flee Dominican Republic and Fidel brought his own assumption of military and political power. On 08 January 1959, he marched victoriously to Havana. On 16 February, Fidel Castro became Prime Minister of Cuba. In 1960, he became close to Soviet Union signed several pacts. On April 16 1961, he formally declared Cuba as a socialist state. In 2006, Fidel transferred his responsibilities to Vice-President Raúl Castro. On 18 February, Fidel Castro formally delegated powers to Vice-President.

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