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    Full Name: Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust
    Known AS: Marcel Proust
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Adrien Proust (physician, Roman Catholic)
    Mother: Jeanne Clémence Weil (Jewish)
    Date of Birth: 10 July 1871
    Birth Place: Auteuil, France
    Date of Death: 18 November 1922 (aged 51)
    Death Place: Paris, France
    Cause of Death: Pneumonia
    Remains: Buried, Cimetière du Père Lachaise, Paris, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Lycée Condorcet, University of Sorbonne
    Occupation:Novelist, Essayist, Critic
    Military Service: (1889-90)
    Nationality: France
    Influenced By: Saint-Simon, Balzac, Baudelaire, Bergson, Flaubert, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Schopenhauer
    Influenced: John Banville, Roland Barthes, Truman Capote, Gilles Deleuze, Jack Kerouac, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Iris Murdoch, Vladimir Nabokov, Orhan Pamuk, Edmund White, Virginia Woolf, Richard Wright
    Major Writings:In Search of Lost Time (1913); Remembrance of Things Past (Play); Albertine disparue (1927); Within a budding grove (1919); Pleasures and days; The Way by Swann's; Finding Time Again; Letters of Marcel Proust


    The French novelist, essayist and critic Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 - 18 November 1922) is considered as one of the greatest literary figures of the 20th century. He was best known for his monumental novel, In Search of Lost Time which was published in seven parts within 1913 to 1927.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Marcel Proust was born on 10 July 1871 in Auteuil, France. At age nine, he attacked by serious asthma. In 1882, Proust began his formal education entering at the Lycee Condorcet. But his education was severed because of his illness. In 1889, Proust left the school and joined in the French army as an enlisted man where he served for one year. From 1892 to 1893, he wrote criticism, sketches and short stories for the journal Le Banquet and to La Revue blanche.

    Personal Life:
    Marcel Proust's father Adrien Proust was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist and his mother, Jeanne Clémence Weil was the daughter of a rich and cultured Jewish family. She was literate and well-read. She helped to Proust's of translating of John Ruskin.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1895, Marcel Proust published his first novel Jean Santeuil. In 1899, he became interested to the works of the English critic John Ruskin (1819–1900). After that, he rendered Ruskin's The Bible of Amiens (1904) and Sesame and Lilies (1906) into French. In 1913, he published his masterpiece novel A la Recherche du temps perdu which best known as translated name, In Search of Lost Time. Proust spent his last years to his cork-lined bedroom. He died on 18 November 1922. Marcel Proust was buried at Cimetière du Père Lachaise, Paris, France.

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    Full Name: Jane Austen
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: George Austen (rector, 1731-1805)
    Mother: Cassandra Leigh (1739 - 1827)
    Boyfriend: Harris Bigg-Wither (broken engagement)
    Marital Status: Unmarried
    Date of Birth: 16 December 1775
    Birth Place: Steventon Rectory, Hampshire, England
    Date of Death: 18 July 1817 (aged 41)
    Death Place: Winchester, Hampshire, England
    Cause of Death: Addison's disease
    Remains: Buried, Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England
    Gender: Female
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Educated by Mrs. Ann Cawley and self-education
    Occupation:Novelist
    Genres: Romantic fiction
    Nationality: England
    Influenced:Ralph Waldo Emerson, George Eliot, Henry James
    Major Writings:Sense and Sensibility (1811, novel); Pride and Prejudice (1813, novel); Mansfield Park (1814, novel); Emma (1816, novel); Northanger Abbey (1818, novel, posthumous); Persuasion (1818, novel, posthumous)


    Early Life & Childhood:
    Jane Austen was born on 16 December 1775 in Steventon Rectory, Hampshire, England. After a few months of her birth, Austen mother placed her to Elizabeth Littlewood who nursed and raised for 12 or 18 months. In 1783, Austen along with her sister Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs. Ann Cawley. In 1784, they went with her to Southampton. In later 1786, Austen and Cassandra returned home by their parents wish. In 1787, Austen began to write poems, stories and plays. In 1793, she began to write a short play named Sir Charles Grandison but then abandoned. From 1793 to 1795, she wrotea short epistolary novel, Lady Susan.

    Personal Life:
    Jane Austen's father George Austen (1731-1805) was a rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon, Hampshire and her mother Cassandra Leigh (1739 - 1827) was a member of the prominent Leigh family. She had six brothers and one sister. Jane Austen never married though several men came into her life including: Thomas Lefroy, Samuel Blackall and Harris Bigg-Wither.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1801, Jane Austen family moved to Bath, Somerset. In 1805, she lost her father. After her father death, she moved to Southampton with her sister and mother. In 1809, Austen moved again to Chawton, Hampshire and began writing. In her 30s, she began to publish her works as anonymously. During this time, Austen published Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1815). In 1841, began to feel unwell. She suffered from Addison's disease. she died on 18 July 1817 at the aged of 41. Jane Austen was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England.

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    Birth Name: Michael King, Jr.
    Known AS: Martin Luther King, Jr.
    Nickname: M.L.K.
    Father: Michael Luther King, Sr. (pastor, d. 11-Nov-1984)
    Mother: Alberta Williams King (schoolteacher)
    Wife: Coretta Scott King (m. 18 June 1953)
    Number of Children: 4 (two daughters, two sons)
    Date of Birth: 15 January 1929
    Birth Place: Atlanta, Georgia
    Date of Death: 04 April 1968 (aged 39)
    Death Place: Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    Cause of Death: Assassination
    Assassinated By: James Earl Ray
    Remains: Buried, Martin Luther King, Jr. Center, Atlanta, Georgia
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Capricorn
    Religion: Baptist
    Race or Ethnicity: Black
    Education:
    • High School: Washington High School
    • College: Morehouse College (1944-1948, B.A.)
    • Theological: Crozer Theological Seminary (1948–1951, B.D.)
    • University: Boston University (1954–1955, Ph.D.)
    Occupation:Activist, Religion
    Organization: Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    Political Movement: African-American Civil Rights Movement, Peace movement
    Nationality: United States
    Awards: Nobel Peace Prize (1964), Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977), Congressional Gold Medal (2004)
    Influenced By: Abraham Lincoln, Reinhold Niebuhr, Bayard Rustin, Howard Thurman, Paul Tillich, Leo Tolstoy
    Major Writings:Stride Toward Freedom (1958, nonfiction); Why We Can't Wait (1964, nonfiction); Where Do We Go From Here? (1967, nonfiction)


    American clergyman and activist Martin Luther King, Jr. (15 January 1929 - 04 April 1968) was the leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his Activist in the preferment of civil rights. He organized several campaigns and and also protests to help get rid of the particular segregation of folks determined by race. He could be fondly often called the actual human rights icon.

    Early Life, Childhood & Education:
    Martin Luther King, Jr. was born as Michael King, Jr. on 15 January 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1934, his family moved to Europe. In Europe, Michael King, Jr. was changed to Martin Luther King Jr. In May 1936, he was baptized. Martin began formal education with Washington High School. After that, he entered Morehouse College at the age of fifteen. In 1948, he gained his Bachelor’s of Arts degree in Sociology from this college. In 1948, he admitted Crozer Theological Seminary where he received a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. After that in 1954, Martin entered Boston University. From Boston, he earned Doctorate in Philosophy (PhD) degree in 1955.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Martin Luther King's father, Michael Luther King, Sr. was a pastor and his mother Alberta Williams King was schoolteacher. They lived in rural Georgia. Martin was the 2nd of three children of his parents. On 18 June 1953, he married to Coretta Scott. They had four children (two daughters, two sons) named Martin Luther King III, Yolanda King, Bernice King, Dexter Scott King.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1954, Martin Luther King selected as a pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. As a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, he led the boycott of Montgomery's segregated buses, which lasted for 385 days. In 1956, Martin was arrested and his house was bombed. In 1957, he was selected President of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In 1958, he published his first book, Stride Toward Freedom. On 28 August 1963, Martin Gave "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in peace. In 1968, he was assassinated by James Earl Ray on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Martin Luther King, Jr. was buried at Martin Luther King, Jr. Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

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    Full Name: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
    Birth Name: Rolihlahla Mandela
    Known AS: Nelson Mandela
    Nickname: Madiba, Black Pimpernel
    Father: Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (1880-1927)
    Mother: Nosekeni Fanny
    Wife Name:
    • Evelyn Ntoko (m. 1944, div. 1958)
    • Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (m. 1958, div. 1996)
    • Graça Machel (m. 1998-present)
    Number of Children: 5 (Five)
    Date of Birth: 18 July 1918
    Birth Place: Mvezo, South Africa
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion: Christianity (Methodism)
    Race or Ethnicity: Black
    Eucation:
    • School: Healdtown Comprehensive School
    • College: Methodist college
    • University: University of Fort Hare (B.A)
    • University: University of the Witwatersrand (Law)
    • University: University of South Africa
    • University: University of London International Programmes
    • University: University of London
    Occupation:Activist, Head of State
    Political Party: African National Congress (ANC)
    President: President of South Africa (10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999)
    Nationality: South Africa
    Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Peace (1993)
    Major Writings:Long Walk to Freedom (Autobiography, 1994); In his own words; In the words of Nelson Mandela; How far we slaves have come!; Housing Generator

    Anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician Nelson Mandela (b. 18 July 1918) was the President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African who elected as President in a fully representative, multiracial election. Mandela was a leading member of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. He was awarded The Nobel Prize in Peace in 1993.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Nelson Mandela was born as Rolihlahla Mandela on 18 July 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa. He was the 1st member of his family who attend a school. He received English name ‘Nelson’ as his first name by his teacher. He received his primary education from Healdtown Comprehensive School. In 1937, Mandela went to Healdtown and attended at the Methodist college in Fort Beaufort. After that, he entered at the University College of Forte Hare where he gained his Bachelor of Arts Degree. In 1943, Mandela moved to Johannesburg and joined African National Congress (ANC) one year later. He admitted at the University of the Witwatersrand to study law. In 1944, he played important role founding the ANC Youth League. In 1947, Mandela was elected to the executive committee of the Transvaal ANC. In 1950, he was elected national president of the ANCYL. During this time, he influenced by the texts of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong. On 30 July 1952, he was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act. In 1960, The ANC was banned and Mandela was detained until 1961.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa was a local chief and councillor to the monarch and his mother named Nosekeni Fanny. In 1944, he married to Evelyn Ntoko who birth four children and was divorced in 1958. In 1958, Mandela married again to Winnie Madikizela-Mandela who was divorced in 1996. In 1998, He marred third time to Graça Machel.

    Later Life:
    In early 1962, Nelson Mandela left the country for military training in Algeria and to arrange training for other members. On 5 August 1962, after his returned, he was arrested for leaving the country illegally and jailed in Johannesburg's Marshall Square prison. In 1964, Mandela and his co-accused were transferred to the prison on Robben Island. In April 1982, he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, Cape Town. In December 1988, he was moved to Victor Verster Prison because of suffering from tuberculosis. In 1990, Mandela was released from the Robben Island prison. In May 1990, he led a multiracial ANC delegation into preliminary negotiations with a government delegation. In General election of 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May. In June 1999, he retired from Public life and move to reside in his birth place.

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    Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
    Known AS: Mahatma Gandhi
    Nickname: Bapu, Gandhiji
    Father Name: Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885)
    Mother Name: Putlibai Gandhi
    Wife: Kasturba Gandhi (m. 1882, d. 1944)
    Number of Children: Four (Son)
    Date of Birth: 02 October 1869
    Birth Place: Porbandar, Gujarat, India
    Date of Death: 30 January 1948 (aged 78)
    Death Place: New Delhi, India
    Cause of Death: Assassination by shooting
    Assassinated By: Nathuram Godse
    Remains: Cremated (ashes scattered)
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Libra
    Religion: Hindu
    Race or Ethnicity: Asian/Indian
    Education:
    • Hight School: Alfred High School, Rajkot
    • College: Samaldas College, Bhavnagar (Matriculation)
    • University: University College London (Law
    Occupation:Activist, Political Leader
    Nationality: India
    Major Writings:The Story of My Experiments with Truth (1927); The Essential Gandhi (Biography, 1962); The words of Gandhi (1982); The Wit and Wisdom of Gandhi


    Mahatma Gandhi (02 October 1869-30 January 1948) was the prominent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India. He guided India to independence. Gandhi fought for civil rights and freedom by non-violence movements across the world. His birthday is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday. It also celebrated as the International Non-Violence day across the world.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Mahatma Gandhi was born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 02 October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. He began his education at his middle school in Porbandar. After that, he admitted at Alfred High School in Rajkot. Gandhi was good at English and Arithmetic but weak in Geography. He completed his matriculation from Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat. In 1888, Gandhi went to London to study low at University College London. In June 1891, he returned India after calling to the bar. In 1893, he received a contract from Dada Abdulla & Co. and was posted in the Colony of Natal, South Africa. In 1894, he founded Natal Indian Congress in South Africa. In South Africa, Gandhi saw the differentiation directed at all coloured people. He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after neglecting to move from the first-class. Gandhi protested and was granted about top class the following day.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Mahatma Gandhi's father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885) was diwan (chief minister) of Porbander state and his mother named Putlibai Gandhi. In 1888, Gandhi married to Kasturbai Makhanji who one year older fro him. They had four sons: Harilal (1888-1948); Manilal (1892-1956); Ramdas (1897-1959); and Devdas (1900-1957).

    Later Life & Assassination:
    In 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned his home in India. In India, he supported the Home Rule movement. After that, he became leader of the Indian National Congress. He advocated for the policy of non-violent to achieve independence. Gandhi struggled to help poor farmers and laborers, relieve poverty, liberate women and being self-rule for India. In 1918, his first major achievements came with the Champaran and Kheda agitations of Bihar and Gujarat. From 1919-22, Gandhi led civil disobedience campaign. For this reason, he was jailed for conspiracy from 1922 to 1924. In 1930, he led Dandi march against tax on salt. In March 1931, Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. In 1942, Gandhi was arrested and imprisoned in Aga Khan Palace, Pune. In 1947, Indo-Pakistan war, partition of India. After independence, he tried to stop the Hindu-Muslim conflict in Bengal, a policy which concluded in the shooting with Delhi through Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic. Mahatma Gandhi wasn't buried. His remains was cremated and then ashes scattered.

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    Full Name: Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz
    Known AS: Raúl Castro
    Nickname: Don't have Nickname
    Best Known AS: Brother of Fidel Castro
    Father: Angel Castro y Argiz (1875–1956)
    Mother: Lina Ruz Gonzáles (1903–1963)
    Wife: Vilma Espin Guillois (m. 1959, d. 2007)
    Number of Children: Four (three daughters, one son)
    Date of Birth: 03 June 1931
    Birth Place: Birán, Cuba
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Gemini
    Religion: Atheist
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education:
    • School: Belen Jesuit Preparatory School
    • University: University of Havana
    Occupation:Head of State
    Military Service: 1953–1959
    Rank: Comandante
    Political Party: Communist Party of Cuba
    President: President of Cuba (24 February 2008 - present)
    Nationality: Cuba
    Awards: Hero of the Republic of Cuba, Order of Yaroslav Mudry First Grade, National Order of Mali


    Cuban politician and revolutionary Raúl Castro (b. 03 June 1931) is the brother of the Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro. Most of his life, he spent under the shadow of his elder brother. Raul played a very important role in the Cuban Revolution along with his brother. He became President of Cuba on 24 February 2008.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Raúl Castro was born on 03 June 1931 in Birán, Cuba. He studied at Belen Jesuit Preparatory School. Raúl became interested in politics while studying at the University of Havana. In 1953, he became a member of '26th of July Movement' and attacked the Moncada Army Barracks with Fidel Castro but they were captured. In 1955, they were released by a government pardon. After taht, he went to Mexico City, Mexico with his brother where he met with Che Guevara. In 1956, Raúl returned to Cuba and started the revolution. In December 1958, he was sent Cienfuegos and Guevara as Comandante of most of the rebel army. In October 1959, Raúl Castro became the Minister of the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

    Personal Life & Marrige:
    Raúl Castro's father, Angel Castro y Argiz (1875–1956) was owner of a sugar plantation and his mother named Lina Ruz Gonzáles (1903–63). In 1959, Raúl married to Vilma Espin Guillois who birth four children (three daughters, one son). Vilma Espin Guillois was died in 2007.

    Later Life:
    In 1962, Raúl Castro was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister of Cuba and first deputy prime minister in 1972. In 1976, he became the first Vice-president of Cuba. On 31 July 2006, Raúl Castro was nominated as the President of Cuba. He received power temporary due to Fidel Castro's illness. On 18 February 2008, Fidel Castro declared that he would not receive his the positions of Cuba President. As result, Raúl Castro became the President of Cuba.

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    Full Name: Ernesto Guevara de la Serna
    Known AS: Che Guevara
    Nickname: Che, El Fuser
    Father: Ernesto Guevara Lynch
    Mother: Celia de la Serna
    Wife: Hilda Gadea (m. 1955, div. 1959)
    Wife: Aleida March de la Torre (m. 1959–until his death)
    Number of Children: Five
    Date of Birth: 14 June 1928
    Birth Place: Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Date of Death: 09 October 1967 (aged 39)
    Death Place: La Higuera, Vallegrande, Bolivia
    Cause of Death: Execution
    Remains: Buried, Santa Clara, Las Villas, Cuba
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Gemini
    Religion: Atheist
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education:
    • School: Colegio Nacional Dean Funes, Cordoba, Argentina
    • University: University of Buenos Aires, Argentina (1948-53)
    Occupation:Activist, Military
    Lecturer: National Autonomous University of Mexico (1954)
    Organization:
    • 26th of July Movement
    • United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution
    • National Liberation Army (Bolivia)
    Nationality: Argentina
    Executive Summary: Revolutionary Icon


    Argentine revolutionary and guerrilla leader Che Guevara (14 June 1928-09 October 1967) was a important figure of the Cuban Revolution along with Fidel Castro and Raúl Castro. He is remembered as revolutionary icon of modern age all over world. Guevara later joineded in guerrilla action in Bolivia, where he was killed.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Che Guevara born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna on 14 June 1928 in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. He began his formal education with Colegio Nacional Dean Funes. Within his 12, he began participating in local chess tournaments after learning from his father. In his childhood, Guevara became impassioned about poetry and read Pablo Neruda, John Keats, Federico García Lorca, Gabriela Mistral and Walt Whitman. The Guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, including Karl Marx, William Faulkner, Jawaharlal Nehru, Albert Camus, Vladimir Lenin, Jean-Paul Sartre, Friedrich Engels, H. G. Wells and Robert Frost. In 1948, Guevara enrolled at the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Che Guevara's father was Ernesto Guevara Lynch and mother named Celia de la Serna. He was the eldest of five children of his parent. In 1955, Guevara married to Hilda Gadea but divorced her in 1959. This year he married again to Aleida March de la Torre who was until his death. Guevara had five children.

    Later Life & Execution:
    In September 1954, Che Guevara moved to Mexico City after completing his course and joined in the allergy section of the General Hospital. During this time, he worked as lecturer on medicine at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 1955, Guevara met with Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl Castro in Mexico and became a part of their efforts to overthrow the Batista government in Cuba. In 1959, Fidel Castro came in power and Guevara was charged of La Cabaña Fortress prison. During this time, he executed 156 and 550 people on his extra-judicial order. After that, he was appointed as president of the Cuban national bank and then minister of industry. In 1965, he left his position. In 1966, Guevara excited the people of Bolivia to revolt against their government. But he had little success. On 09 October 1967, he was captured and killed by the Bolivian army. Che Guevara was buried at Santa Clara, Las Villas, Cuba.

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    Full Name: Albert Camus
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Lucien Auguste Camus (agricultural worker)
    Mother: Catherine Hélène Sintés (maid)
    Wife: Simone Hié (drug addict, m. 1934, div. 1936)
    Wife: Francine Faure (mathematics teacher, m. 1940)
    Daughter: Catherine Camus (twin, b. 1946)
    Son: Jean Camus (twin, b. 1946)
    Date of Birth: 07 November 1913
    Birth Place: Dréan, El Taref, French Algeria
    Date of Death: 04 January 1960 (aged 46)
    Death Place: Villeblevin, Yonne, Burgundy, France
    Cause of Death: Accident (car accident)
    Remains: Buried, Lourmarin Cemetery, Lourmarin, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac SIGN: Scorpio
    Religion: Agnostic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • Tutored By: Louis Germain at the Local School
    • University: BA Philosophy, University of Algiers (1935)
    • University: MA Philosophy, University of Algiers (1936)
    Occupation:Novelist, Writer, Philosopher
    Political Party:
    • French Communist Party (1935)
    • Algerian People's Party (1936)
    Nationality: France
    Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature (1957)
    Notable Works:The Stranger (1946); The Plague (1947); The Rebel (1954); The Myth of Sisyphus (1955)
    Influenced By:Plotinus, Augustine of Hippo, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Karl Marx, Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Victor Hugo, George Orwell, André Gide, Max Stirner, Sigmund Freud, Lev Shestov, Jean-Paul Sartre


    French Novelist and philosopher Albert Camus (07 November 1913-04 January 1960) is most known for his contribution in the field of literature. He also contributed to the rise of the philosophical view which often known as absurdism. Albert Camus is considered as a master of existentialism. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Albert Camus born on 07 November 1913 on Dréan, El Taref, French Algeria. From early age, he was good student along with sportsman. At first, he was tutored by Louis Germain at the local school. In 1923, Albert passed the lycée entrance exams. After that, he was admitted at the University of Algiers. In 1930, he recognized his tuberculosis and left football activities. He was goalkeeper for the university team. In 1935, Albert completed his licence de philosophie (BA). In May 1936, he successfully presented his thesis on Plotinus and completed his MA. In 1937, he published his first book, L'Envers et L'endroit (collection of essays).

    Personal Life & Family:
    Albert Camus's father, Lucien Auguste Camus was poor agricultural worker. In 1914, his father died in the Battle of the Marne. In 1934, Albert Camus married to Simone Hié but divorced her two years later. In 1940, he married again to Francine Faure who birth a daughter and a son in 1946.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1938, Albert Camus became a journalist for a socialite paper named the Alger-Republicain. In 1940, he moved to Paris. In March 1940, He was advised to leave Algeria and was declared a threat to national security. In 1942, Albert published his first famous work, The Stranger. In 1943, he was appointed as the editor of a Resistance newspaper, Combat. In 1949, he was again trapped with tuberculosis (TB). In 1951, The Rebel was published. In 1956, he published his novel The Fall. In 1957, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Albert Camus died on 4 January in a car accident. He was buried at Lourmarin Cemetery, Lourmarin, France.

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    Full Name: Plotinus
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Unknown
    Mother Name: Unknown
    Date of Birth: 205 AD
    Birth Place: Lycopolis, Egypt
    Date of Death: 270 AD (aged 64–65)
    Death Place: Campania, Italian Region
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Gender: Male
    Race or Ethnicity: Middle Eastern
    Occupation:Philosopher
    Nationality: Ancient Rome
    Executive Summary: Founder of the Neoplatonic School
    Main Interests: Platonism, Metaphysics, Mysticism
    Notable Ideas: The One, Emanationism, Henosis, Nous
    Major Writings:Enneads (philosophy)
    Influenced:Augustine, Boethius, Bonaventure, Gemistus Pletho, Arthur Schopenhauer, Henri Bergson, Arthur Drews


    Plotinus was born on 205 AD in Lycopolis, Egypt. He was a major philosopher of the ancient world. A little is known about Plotinus. In his system of theory there are the three principles: the One, the Intellect and the Soul. He was the last great Greek philosopher. His works influenced many later philosopher. Plotinus died on 270 AD in Campania, Italian Region.

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    Full Name: William Cuthbert Faulkner
    Birth Name: William Cuthbert Falkner
    Known AS: William Faulkner
    Also Known AS: Will Faulkner
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Murray Charles Falkner (17 Aug 1870 - 07 Aug 1932)
    Mother: Maud Butler Falkner (27 Nov 1871 - 16 Oct 1960)
    Wife: Lida Estelle Oldham Franklin ( m. 20 June 1929)
    Nubmer of Children: Four (One Son and Three Daughter)
    Date of Birth: 25 September 1897
    Birth Place: New Albany, Mississippi, United States
    Date of Death: 06 July 1962 (aged 64)
    Death Place: Byhalia, Mississippi, United States
    Cause of Death: Heart Failure
    Remains: Buried, St Peter's Cemetery, Oxford, MS
    Gender: Male
    Height: 5 feet 5 inches
    Zodiac SIGN: Libra
    Religion: Presbyterian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • High School: Oxford High School, Oxford (dropped out)
    • University: University of Mississippi, Oxford (1919-21)
    Occupation:Novelist, Author
    Scholar: Writer-in-Residence, University of Virginia (1957-62)
    Nationality: United States
    Notable Award(s):
    • O. Henry Memorial Short Story Award (1939)
    • Nobel Prize in Literature (1949)
    • Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1955, 1963)
    Influenced By:James Joyce, Charles Dickens, Joseph Conrad, Miguel de Cervantes, Gustave Flaubert, Honoré de Balzac, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, William Shakespeare, Leo Tolstoy, Herman Melville
    Notable Work(s):The Sound and the Fury (1929, novel); As I Lay Dying (1930); A Rose for Emily (1930, short stories); Light in August (1932, novel); Absalom, Absalom! (1936, novel); A Fable (1954, novel); The Reivers (1962, novel)


    American writer William Faulkner (25 September 1897-06 July 1962) contributed almost all field of literature such as novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays and screenplays. The fanciful power and psychological depth of his work ranks him as one of the greatest writers. He was awarded Nobel Prize in Literature (1949) and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1955, 1963).

    Early Life & Childhood:
    William Cuthbert Faulkner was born as William Cuthbert Falkner on 25 September 1897 in New Albany, Mississippi, United States. When he was only one year, his family moved to Oxford, Mississippi. In to Oxford, William was admitted at the Oxford High School. Though he was good student but didn't feel the necessity of formal education. So, he dropped out of high school. After that, William collected a job in a bank in Oxford and began to write. In 1918, William Faulkner tried to become a pilot for the United States Army but failed for physical requirements. In 1919, he entered at the University of Mississippi where he studied next two years. In 1925, he visited throughout England, France and Italy. From 1926-30, William published a series of novels which earned commercially successful. During this time, he published Soldiers' Pay (1926), Mosquitoes (1927), precede Sartoris (1927), As I Lay Dying (1930), Sanctuary (1931) and became successful.

    Personal Life & Family:
    William Faulkner's father, Murray Charles Falkner was the treasurer for the family's Gulf & Chicago Railroad Company and his mother named Maud Butler Falkner. William was the 1st of four sons of his parent. On 20 June 1929, he married to Lida Estelle Oldham Franklin who birth four children (One Son and Three Daughter).

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1932, William Faulkner joined to Hollywood for a year as a scriptwriter and an adviser. In 1936, he published Absalom, Absalom!. In 1939, He was awarded the O. Henry Memorial Short Story Award. In 1940, he published the first volume of the Snopes trilogy, The Hamlet, and next two are: The Town (1957) and The Mansion (1959). In 1949, William Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1954 for A Fable and in 1962 for The Reivers. He died on 06 July 1962. William Faulkner was buried at Byhalia, Mississippi, United States.

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    Real Name: Samuel Langhorne Clemens
    Known AS: Mark Twain
    Pen Name: Mark Twain
    Father: John Marshall Clemens (attorney, 1798-1847)
    Mother: Jane Lampton (1803-1890)
    Wife: Olivia Livy Langdon (m. 02-Feb-1870)
    Number of Children: Four (one son, three daughters)
    Date of Birth: 30 November 1835
    Birth Place: Florida, Missouri, United States
    Date of Death: 21 April 1910 (aged 74)
    Death Place: Redding, Connecticut, United States
    Cause of Death: Heart Failure
    Remains: Buried, Woodlawn Cemetery, Elmira, New York
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac SIGN: Sagittarius
    Religion: Atheist
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Author
    Nationality: United States
    Notable Work(s):Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Satirical novel, 1884-85); The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (short story, 1867); The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876); A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889); The American Claimant (1892, novel)


    Early Life & Childhood;
    Mark Twain was born as Samuel Langhorne Clemens on 30 November 1835 in Florida, Missouri, United States. When he was only four, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri. In 1847, his father died of pneumonia. In 1851, he got a job as a typesetter and contributor along with occasional writer for the Hannibal Journal. In 1853, he left Hannibal and then began working as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis and Cincinnati. In 1857, Twain visited to New Orleans and began learning the art of piloting. In 1859, he able to gain his license and soon joined as pilot plying the shoals and channels of the great river. In 1861, he left his job for the Civil War though he loved his job. In 1863, Mark Twain began to write humorous account of his travel. After that, he moved to San Francisco and started working as a journalist and lecturer.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Mark Twain's father, John Marshall Clemens (1798-1847) was an attorney and judge and his mother named Jane Lampton (1803-1890). In 1868, Mark Twain met with Olivia Livy Langdon and fall in love. On 02 February 1870, he married her who birth four children (one son, three daughters).

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1867, Mark Twain visited Europe and the Middle East. In 1869, Twain published a collection of travel letters named The Innocents Abroad. In 1871, he moved to Hartford with his wife. In 1876, he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. In 1884, Mark Twain published Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in UK & Canada and following year in United States. In 1888, he was awarded the Master of Art degree from Yale University. In 1895, he left home for world tour and visited Australia, Canada, India and New Zealand. In 1901, Twain received honorary Doctor of Letters degree from Yale University. In 1907, he was awarded the same award from Oxford University. In 1908, he moved to his home in Redding. He died of a heart attac on 21 April 1910. Mark Twain was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery, Elmira, New York, United States.

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    Birth Name: Justin Drew Bieber
    Known AS: Justin Bieber
    Nickname: JBiebz, Biebz, JB, Bieber
    Father Name: Jeremy Bieber
    Mother Name: Patricia Mallette (web designer)
    Step-mother Name: Erin Wagner Bieber
    Sister: Jazmyn Bieber (half-sister, b. 2008)
    Brother: Jaxon Bieber (half-brother, b. 2009)
    Girlfriend: Jasmine Villegas (pop singer, together 2010)
    Girlfriend: Selena Gomez (actress, together 2010-13)
    Date of Birth: 01 March 1994
    Current Age: 19
    Birth Place: London, Ontario, Canada
    Origin: Stratford, Ontario, Canada
    Gender: Male
    Height: 5' 7" (1.70 m)
    Zodiac Sign: Pisces
    Religion: Christian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: St. Michael Catholic Secondary School, Stratford, Ontario (2012)
    Occupation: Singer
    Genres: Pop, R&B, Teen Pop
    Instruments: Vocals, Guitar, Piano, Drums, Trumpet
    Nationality: Canada
    Executive Summary:Baby
    Awards: 2011 CMT Music Awards: Collaborative Video of the Year - Winner
    Author of Books:Justin Bieber: First Step 2 Forever (2010)
    Selected Albums:My World (2009); My World 2.0 (2010); Under the Mistletoe (2011); Believe (2012)


    Canadian pop musician and singer-songwriter Justin Bieber (b. 01 March 1994) is a young, world wide popular singer. He began to dominate the music world in 2010 and became the most popular in YouTube videos. Justin Bieber is the most searched person in all over the world on Google.

    Early Life & Childhood:
    Justin Drew Bieber was born on 01 March 1994 at St Joseph's Hospital in London, Ontario, Canada. Bieber was interested in music from his early age. His mother was gift him a drum kit for his second birthday. At the age of 12, he listed a local singing competition. Justin Bieber became second in this singing competition. To express his success and talent family members, he started publishing video clips of his performances on YouTube. Visitors began subscribing to his videos and over 10 million visitors views of his performances.

    On his 13, his future manager Scooter Braun discovered him. After that, he went to Atlanta to meet R&B singer Usher along with actor and singer Justin Timberlake. In October 2008, Bieber received the deal offered by Usher and signed to Island Records. In July 2009, Justin Bieber's first single One Time was released and he began climbing the top pop singles chart in the United States and Canada. On 17 November 2009, his first album My World was released and debuted at 06 on the album chart. In January 2010, Bieber broke the Billboard Top 10 with Baby. In March 2010, his 2nd album My World 2.0 was released. After that, he was released Under the Mistletoe (2011); Believe (2012).

    Personal Life:
    Justin Bieber is the Jeremy Jack Bieber and Patricia Mallette. His parents were never married but they maintained a close relationship for their son's personal and professional life. Biebar had a close relationship with pop singer Jasmine Villegas until 2010. After that from 2010, he became close with television actress and singer Selena Gomez.

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    Full Name: Selena Marie Gomez
    Known AS: Selena Gomez
    Nickname: Sel, Selly
    Father: Ricardo Joel Gomez
    Mother: Amanda Dawn Cornett
    Stepfather: Brian Teefey ( since 2006)
    Boyfriend: Nick Jonas (performer, together 2008-09)
    Boyfriend: Taylor Lautner (actor, together 2009)
    Boyfriend:Justin Bieber (singer, together 2010-13)
    Date of Birth: 22 July 1992
    Birth Place: Grand Prairie, Texas, United States
    Gender: Female
    Height: 5' 5" (1.65 m)
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Occupation: Actor, Singer
    Genres: Pop, Dance, Electropop, Pop Rock
    Instruments: Vocals
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary:Wizards of Waverly Place
    Selected Albums:Kiss & Tell (2009); A Year Without Rain (2010); When the Sun Goes Down (2011)


    Early Life & Childhood:
    American singer and actress Selena Marie Gomez was born on 22 July 1992 in Grand Prairie, Texas, United States. In 2001, she began her career in show business performing as Gianna on the popular children's show Barney & Friends. In 2003, Gomez was dropped from the series. In 2004, she was found out by Disney in a worldwide casting search. She played guest roles in two popular Disney shows, The Suite Life of Zack & Coday and Hannah Montana. In 2006, she got her first major role. In October 2007, Gomez plays lead character as Alex Russo in the series Wizards of Waverly Place in the Disney Channe. The series became a most popular program on the channel. In 2008, Selena Gomez played her first animated movie, Horton Hears a Who!. After that, she made ABC Family movie Another Cinderella Story with Disney Channel. In 2009, she played in Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie. In 2012, Gomez performed as Mavis in the animated film Hotel Transylvania.

    Music Career:
    In Early 2008, Selena Gomez recorded a cover of Cruella de Vil for DisneyMania 6. In later 2008, singed with Hollywood Records. In September 2009, her first album Kiss and Tell was released. After that, she was released A Year Without Rain (2010); When the Sun Goes Down (2011).

    Personal Life:
    Selena Gomez is the child of Ricardo Joel Gomez and Amanda Dawn Cornett. She had close relation with Nick Jonas and actor Taylor Lautner until 2010. In 2001, Gomez romantically close to pop singer Justin Bieber.

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    Full Name: Charles Pierre Baudelaire
    Known AS: Charles Baudelaire
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: François Baudelaire (civil servant)
    Mother: Caroline Defayis
    Stepfather: Jacques Aupick (French Senator)
    Girlfriend: Jeanne Duval (1820-92)
    Date of Birth: 09 April 1821
    Birth Place: Paris, France
    Date of Death: 31 August 1867 (aged 46)
    Death Place: Paris, France
    Cause of Death: Stroke
    Remains: Buried, Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Aries
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • School: Military boarding school, Lyon
    • College: Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Paris (1836-39, Law)
    Occupation:Poet, Critic
    Literary Movement: Symbolist, Modernist
    Nationality: France
    Major Writings:Les Fleurs du mal (1857, poetry); Le Spleen de Paris (1869, poetry); Twenty Prose Poems



    Early Life & Childhood:
    Charles Pierre Baudelaire was born on 09 April 1821 in Paris, France. In 1832/33 his family moved to Lyon. In Lyon, he was admitted to a military boarding school. In 1836, his family moved back to Paris. After that, Baudelaire entered at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand to study low. Though he was good student but dismissed just before graduation in 1839. In 1841, his stepfather sent him on a voyage to Calcutta, India. After returned ten months later, he became friends with other authors and artists. In 1842, he got a good sized inheritance.

    Personal Life & Family:
    Charles Baudelaire's father, François Baudelaire was a civil servant who died Baudelaire's childhood in 1827. After his father death, his mother, Caroline Defayis married to Caroline Defayis. In 1841, Baudelaire met with Jeanne Duval (1820-92) in a lifelong relationship.

    Later Life & Death:
    In 1845, Charles Baudelaire published his first book, Salon of 1845. In 1848, French Revolution broke out and he took part with Revolution. In 1857, Baudelaire published his most famous work, Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil). Within 1859, Baudelaire began suffering from a number of chronic. In 1864, he moved to Paris in a hope to sell the rights of his works. In 1866, he suffered from a massive stroke, which was followed by paralysis. Charles Baudelaire died of stroke on 31 August 1867. He was buried at Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris, France.

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    Full Name: Michael Joseph Jackson
    Known AS: Michael Jackson
    Nickname: MJ, Wacko Jacko, Smelly, The King of Pop
    Father: Joe Jackson (b. 26-Jul-1929)
    Mother: Katherine Jackson (b. 4-May-1930)
    Girlfriend: Stephanie Mills (singer, dated in 1975)
    Girlfriend: Tatum O'Neal (actress, dated 1970s)
    Wife: Lisa Marie Presley (m. May-1994, div. 18-Jan-1996)
    Wife: Debbie Rowe (m. 14-Nov-1996, div. 8-Oct-1999)
    Son: Prince Michael Jackson (b. 13-Feb-1997, to Rowe)
    Daughter: Paris Jackson (b. 3-Apr-1998, to Rowe)
    Son: Prince Michael II (unknown mother, b. Feb-2002)
    Date of Birth: 29 August 1958
    Birth Place: Gary, Indiana, United States
    Date of Death: 29 June 2009 (aged 50)
    Death Place: Los Angeles, California, United States
    Cause of Death: Cardiac arrest, Homicide
    Remains: Buried, Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, California
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Race or Ethnicity: Black
    Education: Montclair Prep, Van Nuys, CA (two months, GED)
    Occupation: Singer, Dancer
    Genres: Pop, rock, soul, R&B, funk, disco, new jack swing
    Instruments: Vocals
    Labels: Motown, Epic, Legacy, MJJ Productions
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: King of Pop

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    Full Name: Max Ferdinand Scheler
    Known AS: Max Scheler
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Unknown (Lutheran)
    Mother Name: Unknown (Orthodox Jewish)
    Wife Name: Amalie von Dewitz (1st)
    Wife Name: Märit Furtwängler (m. 1912)
    Date of Birth: 22 August 1874
    Birth Place: Munich, Germany
    Date of Death: 19 May 1928 (aged 53)
    Death Place: Frankfurt, Germany
    Cause of Death: Heart attack
    Remains: Buried, Suedfriedhof Cemetery, Cologne, Germany
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Religion: Judeo-Christian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: University of Munich, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena
    Occupation:Philosopher
    Privatdozent: University of Jena (1901-06)
    Lecturer: University of Munich (1907-10)
    Professor: University of Cologne (1919-28, philosophy and sociology)
    Professor: University of Frankfurt
    Nationality: Germany
    Notable Ideas:
    • Formalism in Ethics and Non-Formal Ethics of Value (1913)
    • The Nature of Sympathy (1913)
    • On the Eternal Man (1921)
    Influenced By:Blaise Pascal, Franz Brentano, Wilhelm Dilthey, Rudolf Eucken, Edmund Husserl, Theodor Lipps


    Early Life & Childhood:

    -----------------------------------
    Max Ferdinand Scheler was born on 22 August 1874 in Munich, Germany. After completing primary education, he entered at University of Munich in 1894. In 1895, Scheler left Munich and enrolled in Berlin to study medicine but he studied primarily philosophy and sociology under Wilhelm Dilthey and Georg Simmel. In 1896, he moved to Jena to finish his education at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena. In 1897, Scheler received his doctorate degree. In 1898, he took a trip to Heidelberg where he met with Max Weber.

    Personal Life & Family:

    -----------------------------------
    Max Scheler came to a Lutheran father and an Orthodox Jewish mother. He married first Amalie von Dewitz but had ended in divorce. In 1912, Scheler married again to Märit Furtwängle. He also divorced his 2nd wife and married third time to Maria, nee Scheu.

    Later Life & Death:

    -----------------------------
    In 1901, Max Ferdinand Scheler began to teach University of Jena where he met Edmund Husserl. In 1906, he moved to Munich with his family and taught at the University of Munich from 1907 to 1910. From 1910 to 1911, he briefly lectured at the Philosophical Society of Göttingen. In 1919, Max Scheler became professor of philosophy and sociology at the University of Cologne and stayed his position until 1928. He died on 19 May 1928. Max Scheler was buried at Suedfriedhof Cemetery, Cologne, Germany.

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    Full Name: Justin Randall Timberlake
    Known AS: Justin Timberlake
    Nickname: Mr. Smooth, Curly, Trousersnake, JT, Prince of Pop
    Father: Randall Timberlake (Baptist minister)
    Mother: Lynn (Bomar) Harless (manager)
    Wife: Jessica Biel (actress, together since 2007, m. 19-Oct-2012)
    Date of Birth: 31 January 1981
    Birth Place: Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    Gender: Male
    Height: 6' 0" (1.82 m)
    Zodiac Sign: Aquarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Religion: Baptist. But he considered him more spiritual than religious
    Sexual Orientation: Straight
    Occupation: Actor, Singer
    Genres: Pop, R&B, dance-pop, hip hop
    Instruments: Beatboxing, Guitar, Keyboards, Vocals
    Labels: Jive, RCA, Zomba
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: *NSYNC

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    Real Name: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu
    Known Name: Mother Teresa
    Nickname: The Saint of the Gutters
    Father Name: Nikollë Bojaxhiu
    Mother Name: Dranafile Bojaxhiu
    Date of Birth: 26 August 1910
    Death Place:Üsküp, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire (Macedonia)
    Date of Death: 05 September 1997 (aged 87)
    Death Place: Calcutta, India
    Cause of Death: Heart Failure
    Remains: Buried, Mother House Convent, Calcutta, India
    Gender: Female
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Loreto Abbey, Rathfarnham (1928–1929)
    Occupation: Religion, Activist, Nun
    Nationality: India
    Notable Awards: Nobel Peace Prize, Bharat Ratna
    Executive Summary: Missionaries of Charity
    Major Writings:Mother Teresa: In My Own Words (1996); No greater love (1997); Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light: The Private Writings of the Saint of Calcutta (2007); Thirsting for God; Everything starts from prayer


    Mother Teresa born as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (26 August 1910 – 05 September 1997) was an ethnic Albanian, Indian Roman Catholic nun and activist who became the Mother of the sick, poor as well as impoverished. She fought her hole life to serve the poor and destitute. Mother Teresa established a hospice; centers for the blind, aged and disabled. She was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work and Bharat Ratna in 1980.

    Early Life & Childhood:

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    Full Name: Jonathan Swift
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Pen Name: M. B. Drapier, Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff
    Father: Jonathan Swift (1640–1667)
    Mother: Abigaile Erick Swift
    Wife: Stella Johnson (m. 1716, d. 1728)
    Date of Birth: 30 November 1667
    Birth Place: Dublin, Ireland
    Date of Death: 19 October 1745 (aged 77)
    Death Place: Dublin, Ireland
    Cause of Death: Stroke
    Remains: Buried, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, Ireland
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • High School: Kilkenny Grammar School (1674-82)
    • University: Trinity College, Dublin (1682)
    • University: MA, Oxford University (1692)
    Occupation:Author
    Language: English
    Nationality: Ireland
    Notable Works:A Tale of a Tub (1704); Gulliver's Travels (1726, novel); A Modest Proposal (1729, essay)


    Irish cleric, political pamphleteer, satirist and author Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) is considered as a great political writer and an essayist in English Language. He is best known for his work; Gulliver's Travels (1726, novel). Jonathan Swift served as dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin. Most of his writings were published under pseudonyms.

    Early life & Childhood:

    Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. His father died before his birth. Jonathan stayed with his uncle Godwin Swift. In 1674, His uncle sent him to Kilkenny Grammar School where he studied next eight years. In 1682, he attended Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin University) and received a B.A. Degree in 1686. Jonathan wanted to continue to earn an M.A. but political unrest surrounding the Glorious Revolution. In 1688, he compelled to moved to England. In England, he served as secretary of an English diplomat Sir William Temple at Moor Park. In 1690, Jonathan Swift began to write The Battle of the Books.

    Personal Life & Family:

    Jonathan Swift's father, Jonathan Swift Sr. was a native of Goodrich, Herefordshire who died before his birth and his mother, Abigaile Erick Swift returned to England. Jonathan took after by his uncle Godwin Swift. In 1716, He married Stella Johnson who died in 1728.

    Later Life & Death:

    Jonathan Swift entered Oxford University and received his M.A. degree in 1692. In 1699, he returned to Ireland and became Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin. In 1702, he was awarded Doctor of Divinity from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1704, Jonathan Swift published The Battle of the Books. In 1710, The Tory Part came in power and Jonathan joined the Party. In 1711, he published a political pamphlet The Conduct of the Allies. In 1713, he was appointed Dean of St Patrick's in Dublin. In 1726, Jonathan Swift anonymously published his most famous book Gulliver's Travels. He died on 19 October 1745 in Dublin, Ireland. Jonathan Swift was buried at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, Ireland.

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    Full Name: Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci
    Known AS: Leonardo da Vinci
    Nickname: Renaissance Man
    Father: Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci (d. July 1504)
    Mother: Caterina (d. 1495)
    Girlfriend: Isabella d'Este (Suspected)
    Date of Birth: 15 April 1452
    Birth Place: Vinci, Republic of Florence (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 02 May 1519 (aged 67)
    Death Place: Amboise, Kingdom of France (now France)
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Chapel of Saint-Hubert, Château d'Amboise, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Aries
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation: Painter, Scientist, Inventor
    Period: High Renaissance
    Nationality: Italy
    Notable Works:Annunciation (1475-80); Madonna of the Carnation (1478-80); The Adoration of the Magi (1481); The Last Supper (1498); Mona Lisa (1503-19); Virgin of the Rocks (1483–86); St. John the Baptist (1513-16)


    Leonardo da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 02 May 1519) was a important figure of Italian Renaissance as well as sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer but he is most famous to all as an artist. He is best known for his world famous painting work Mona Lisa (1503-07).

    Early Life & Childhood:

    Leonardo da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452 in Vinci, Republic of Florence (now Italy). He was the illegitimate (born to unmarried parents) son of father. He stayed in the hamlet of Anchiano in his mother's home until his five years. From 1457, Leonardo live with his father, grandparents and uncle in the small town of Vinci. At the age of 12, he moved to Florence with his father. In 1564, he started working as apprenticeship artist at the studio of Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), an Italian sculptor and painter. With a few time, Leonardo occupied a place into the painter’s guild. In 1472, he qualified as a master in the Guild of St Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine. After that, Leonardo served as an assistant in Verrocchio's shop. When he was only 26, he became an expert in painting and in 1478, he owned a separate studio.

    Personal Life & Family:

    Leonardo da Vinci's father, Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci was a prominent notary (a public official who certifies legal documents) of Florence and his mother, Caterina was a local woman. Leonardo was the illegitimate (born to unmarried) son of his parents. Little known about Leonardo's personal life. It is suspected that he was a romantic relation with Isabella d'Este (1474 – 1539), one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance.

    Later Life & Death:

    In 1482, Leonardo da Vinci moved to the court of Ludovico Sforza to accept the post of court artist to the Duke of Milan. In Milan, his first painting was Virgin of the Rocks. He also paint Last Supper (1495–97) in Milan. In 1500, Leonardo returned to Florence, where he was received as a great man. In Florence, he served a term as military engineer for Cesare Borgia (Politician, 1475-1507). In 1503, Leonardo begun painting his most famous portrait Mona Lisa. In 1506, he was called by the French governor in charge to work on an equestrian statue project. In 1513, he went to Rome, where he remained until 1516. He died on 02 May 1519 Amboise, Kingdom of France (now France). Leonardo da Vinci was buried at Chapel of Saint-Hubert, Château d'Amboise, France.

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