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    Birth Name: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso
    AKA: Pablo Ruiz y Picasso
    Known AS: Pablo Picasso
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913)
    Mother: María Picasso y López
    Date of Birth: 25 October 1881
    Birth Place: Málaga, Spain
    Date of Death: 08 April 1973 (aged 91)
    Death Place: Mougins, France
    Cause of Death: Heart Failure
    Remains: Buried, Castle Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhone, France
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Scorpio
    Religion: Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: Hispanic
    Education:
    • La Llotja (Reial Acadèmia Catalana de Belles Arts de Sant Jordi)
    • School of Fine Arts (Barcelona, Spain)
    • Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (dropped out)
    Occupation: Painter, Sculptor
    Field: Painting, Drawing, Sculpture, Printmaking, Ceramics Training:
    • José Ruiz y Blasco (father)
    • Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
    Movement: Cubism
    Nationality: Spain
    Notable Works:The First Communion (1896); The Absinthe Drinker (1901); Garçon à la pipe (1905); The Family of Saltimbanques (1905); Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907); Guernica (1937); The Weeping Woman (1937); Dora Maar au Chat (1941); Massacre in Korea (1951); Las Menina (1957)


    Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and stage designer Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 08 April 1973) was one of the most influential and revolutionary painter in the history of Western painting of the 20th century. Picasso is most known for co-founding the Cubist movement. He established the basis for abstract art. Among most well-known works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), Guernica (1937), The Weeping Woman (1937) as well as portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

    Early Life & Childhood:

    Pablo Ruiz y Picasso was born on 25 October 1881 in Mougins, France. He received his primary painting training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. In 1891, his family moved to A Coruña. In A Coruña, he father appointed as a professor at the School of Fine Arts. In 1895, Picasso moved to Barcelona with his family and his father took a position at its School of Fine Arts. In Barcelona, Picasso entered at the School of Fine Arts and passed the entrance exam, at just 13. After that, his father decided to admitted him to Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid in 1897, the country's foremost art school. In 1899, Picasso moved back to Barcelona and began to study historical and contemporary art on his own. In Barcelona, he joined a group of poets, painters and writers who gathered at the famous café Els Quatre Gats.

    Personal Life & Family:

    Pablo Picasso's father, Don José Ruiz y Blasco was an art teacher and his mother name was María Picasso y López. His full name is:- Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso. His family:-
    Father: Don José Ruiz y Blasco
    Mother: María Picasso y López
    Wife: Olga Koklova (Russian ballerina, m. 12-Jul-1918, div. 1935, one son)
    Son: Paulo Picasso (b. 1919)
    Mistress: Marie-Thérèse Walter (affair in late 1920s and early 30s, one daughter)
    Daughter: Maya Picasso (b. 1932, with Walter)
    Girlfriend: Françoise Gilot (two children; she later married Jonas Salk)
    Daughter: Paloma Picasso (fashion designer, b. 19-Apr-1949)
    Son: Claude Picasso (b. 15-May-1947)
    Wife: Jacqueline Roque (m. 02-Mar-1961, until his death)

    Later Life & Death:

    In 1900, Pablo Ruiz y Picasso moved to Paris, France and he had his first one-man exhibition one year later. In 1904, he set up a permanent studio in Paris. His studio became a gathering place for the city's most modern artists, writers and patrons within few times.
    • Blue Period: Between 1901 to 1904, Known as Picasso's Blue Period. In Blue Period, he painted Blue Nude, La Vie and The Old Guitarist. Those are painted in 1903.
    • Rose Period: Between 1904 to 1906 were known as Rose Period. During this time, his famous painting works were: Family at Saltimbanques (1905), Gertrude Stein (1905-06) and Two Nudes (1906).
    By 1907, Picasso had developed a new form of painting known as 'cubism'. His painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) marked the beginning of 'Cubism'. Others famous work during this are: Fruit Dish (1909), Portrait of Ambroise Vollard (1910) and Ma Jolie (1911–12). His anther famous works are: Guernica (1937); The Weeping Woman (1937); Dora Maar au Chat (1941); Massacre in Korea (1951); Las Menina (1957). Pablo Picasso died on 08 April 1973. He was buried at Castle Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhone, France.

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    Full Name: Cesare Borgia
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo de Lanzol y Borgia)
    Mother: Vannozza dei Cattanei
    Wife: Carlotta d' Arbret (m. 10 May 1499)
    Date of Birth: 13 September 1475
    Birth Place: Rome, Papal States (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 13 March 1507 (aged 31)
    Death Place: Viana, Kingdom of Navarre (now Spain)
    Cause of Death: War
    Remains: Buried, Church of Santa Maria, Viana, Spain
    Gender: Male
    Zoadic Sign: Virgo
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Sexual Orientation: Straight
    Education:
    • High School: Sapienza of Perugia
    • University: University of Pisa
    Occupation: Religion, Military, Politician
    Military Rank: Generalissimo
    Reign (Duke of Valentinois): 17 August 1498 – 13 March 1507
    Nationality: Italy


    Italian nobleman, politician and military leader Cesare Borgia (13 September 1475 - 13 March 1507) played an important part in Renaissance history. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and brother of Lucrezia Borgia. His father set him up as a king of the Papal States but after his father's death he was not able to preserve power for long.

    Early Life & Childhood:

    Cesare Borgia was born on 13 September 1475 in Rome, Papal States (present day Italy). Originally, his career was groomed in the Church. After that, he was studied at Sapienza of Perugia and University of Pisa. Cesare became Bishop of Pamplona at the age of 15. In 1492, he became archbishop of Valencia. In 1493, he was appointed as cardinal of Valencia. In 1457, his brother, Juan Borgia was murdered and Cesare Borgia took command of the papal armies.

    Personal Life & Family:

    Cesare Borgia's father Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo de Lanzol y Borgia) and his mother named was Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was illegitimate son of his parents. Cesare's mother (Vannozza dei Cattanei) was his father's mistress. On 10 May 1499, he married to Charlotte of Albret (1480 – 11 March 1514). His family:-

    Father: Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo de Lanzol y Borgia)
    Mother: Vannozza dei Cattanei
    Brother: Juan Borgia (b. 1474, d. Jun-1497, murder)
    Sister:Lucrezia Borgia (b. 18-Apr-1480, d. 24-Jun-1519)
    Brother: Jofre Borgia (b. 1482)
    Wife: Carlotta d' Arbret (m. 10-May-1499)

    Later Life & Death:

    In 1498, Cesare Borgia resigned his ecclesiastical offices. Within 1499-1503, he won a series of military successes in the Papal States. During this time, he gaining a reputation for ruthlessness and assassination. His political astuteness led Niccol Machiavelli to cite him as an example of the new Prince. In 1503, Cesare's father was died and Julius II elected as new pope. In 1504, Cesare was exiled to Spain. He escaped from prison and died fighting for Kingdom of Navarre. Cesare Borgia was buried at Church of Santa Maria, Viana, Spain.

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    Full Name: Lucrezia Borgia
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo de Lanzol y Borgia)
    Mother: Vannozza dei Cattanei
    Date of Birth: 18 April 1480
    Birth Place: Subiaco, Papal States (now Italy)
    Date of Death: 24 June 1519 (aged 39)
    Death Place: Ferrara, Papal States (now Italy)
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Convento del Corpus Domini, Ferrara, Italy
    Gender: Female
    Zoadic Sign: Aries
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation: Royalty
    Nationality: Italy
    Executive Summary: Infamous Poisoner


    Lucrezia Borgia (18 April 1480 - 24 June 1519) was Italian noblewoman. She was the daughter of pope Alexander VI and sister of Cesare Borgia. Lucrezia Borgia gained a reputation as a political schemer in 15th century Italy. She was born during the Italian Renaissance.

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    Full Name: John Dewey
    Nickname: Didn't have nickname
    Father: Archibald Sprague Dewey
    Mother: Lucina Rich Dewey
    Girlfriend: Anzia Yezierska (novelist, dated 1917-18)
    Wife: Alice Chipman Fenton (m. 1886, 3 sons, 3 daughters)
    Date of Birth: 20 October 1859
    Birth Place: Burlington, Vermont, United States
    Date of Death: 01 June 1952
    Death Place: New York City, New York, United States
    Cause of Death: unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Dewey Memorial, Burlington, Vermont, United States
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Libra
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • School: Public School
    • University: University of Vermont (1879)
    • University: PhD, Johns Hopkins University (1882-84)
    Occupation: Educator, Philosopher
    Professor:
    • University of Michigan (1884-94 excluding 1888-89)
    • University of Minnesota (1888-89)
    • University of Chicago (1894-1904)
    • Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University (1904-30)
    Region: Western Philosophy
    Nationality: United States
    Influenced By:Plato, John Locke, Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel, Charles Darwin, Henry George
    Major Writings:Psychology (1887); The School and Society (1899); Democracy and Education (1916); Reconstruction in Philosophy (1920); Human Nature and Conduct (1922); Logic, the Theory of Inquiry (1938); Freedom and Culture (1939)


    Famous American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer John Dewey (20 October 1859 – 01 June 1952) is considered as a most influential figure in education and social reform. He played an important role for early development of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. Dewey wrote over 1,000 pieces of writings during his lifetime.

    Early Life & Childhood:

    John Dewey was born on 20 October 1859 in Burlington, Vermont, United States. He attended at the public school with his another two brothers. After that, they admitted at the University of Vermont in Burlington. During this time, John Dewey became familiar to the evolutionary theory through the teaching of G.H. Perkins. He also studied the Lessons in Elementary Physiology written by famous English evolutionist, Thomas Huxley. In 1879, Dewey completed his graduation and then taught in high school for two years. During this time, he pursued a career in philosophy. After that, Dewey became a student of philosophy at Johns Hopkins University and completed his doctorate in 1884. Then, he joined as teacher at the University of Michigan. In 1887, he published his first book, Psychology.

    Personal Life & Family:

    John Dewey was the third of four sons to Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemesia Rich. His eldest brother died in infancy. John Dewey was married twice in his lifetime. In 1886, he married to Alice Chipman who birth six children (3 sons, 3 daughters). He married again to Roberta Lowitz Grant later.

    Later Life & Death:

    In 1894, John Dewey joined the newly found University of Chicago. He became interested in social problems and influenced by the ideas of the radical writer, Henry George. Dewey became increasingly interested in the philosophy and published The School and Society in 1899. He largely influenced by the work of Karl Marx and other left-wing philosophers. In 1904, Dewey resigned from the University of Chicago and joined as Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. In 1905, he was elected as the president of the American Psychological Association. In 1916, his important book, Democracy and Education was published. In 1919, Dewey started traveling in Japan. In May 1919, he arrived to Shanghai, China where stayed next two years. In 1930, He took retirement from active teaching. John Dewey died on 01 June 1952. He was buried at Dewey Memorial, Burlington, Vermont, United States.

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    Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol
    Full Name: Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol
    Known AS: Nikolai Gogol
    Nickname: Didn't have known Nickname
    Father Name: Vasily Gogol-Yanovsky
    Mother Name: Maria Kosiarowska
    Wife Name: Unknown
    Date of Birth: 31 March 1809
    Birth Place: Sorochintsky, Poltava, Ukraine
    Date of Death: 04 March 1852 (aged 42)
    Location of Death: Moscow, Russia
    Cause of Death: Starvation
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow, Russia
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Aries
    Religion: Russian Orthodox
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Saint Petersburg State University
    Occupation: Author
    Professor: Saint Petersburg State University (1834)
    Nationality: Russia
    Executive Summary: Dead Souls, The Overcoat
    Major Writings:
            Plays: The Government Inspector, Diary of a Madman
            Movies: Dead Souls, Taras Bulba, Viy, The Inspector General, Propala Hramota, La maschera del demonio/Black Sunday, The Overcoat, The Night Before Christmas, The Lost Letter, A Holy Place, De Boezemvriend, The Girl in the White Coat, The Eve of Ivan Kupalo, The Nose, Sofi
           Books: Dead Souls, Taras Bulba, The complete tales of Nikolai Gogol, How the Two Ivans Quarrelled, Government Inspector, The Overcoat and Other Short Stories, The overcoat, The Inspector General, Taras Bulba and Other Tales,

    Early Life and Chilhood:

    Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol was born on 31 March 1809 in Sorochintsky, Poltava, Russian Empire (now Ukraine). In 1820, Gogol went to a school of higher art in Nizhyn and there he remained until 1828. During this time, he began writing. He was not popular among his schoolmates. In 1828, Gogol left school and entered Saint Petersburg State University. Nikolai Gogol is considered as one of the first masters of the short story, alongside Alexander Pushkin, Prosper Mérimée, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne.

    Personal Life:

    Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol father, Vasily Gogol-Yanovsky was a descendant of Ukrainian Cossacks who died when Gogol was only 15 years old. His mother, Maria Kosiarowska was a descendant of Polish landowners. Nothing more known about his personal Life.

    Later Life and Death:

    In 1831, Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol published the first volume of his Ukrainian stories (Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka), which met with immediate success and 2nd volume in 1832. In 1834, he was made Professor of Medieval History at the University of St. Petersburg. In 1835, he published two volumes of stories entitled Mirgorod. From 1836 to 1848 Gogol lived abroad, travelling through Germany and Switzerland. He was died on 04 March 1852. Nikolai Gogol was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow, Russia.

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    Maxim Gorky Biography
    Full Name: Alexei Maximovich Peshkov
    Known AS: Maxim Gorky
    Pen Name: Maxim Gorky
    Nickname: Didn't have famous Nickname
    Father Name: Unknown (died when Gorky was only five)
    Mother Name: Unknown (died when Gorky was only eleven)
    Wife Name: Yekaterina Peshkova (m. 1896–1903)
                         Maria Andreyeva (m. 1903)
    Date of Birth: 28 March 1868
    Birth Place: Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
    Date of Death: 18 June 1936
    Location of Death: Moscow, Russia
    Cause of Death: Assassination ( by Joseph Stalin)
    Remains: Buried, Kremlin, Moscow, Russia
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Gemini
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation: Writer, Playwright
    Nationality: Russian, Soviet
    Executive Summary: The Lower Depths
    Major Writings:
    • Plays: The Lower Depths, Children of the Sun, Summerfolk
    • Movies: Queen of the Gypsies, The Lower Depths, Mother
    • Books:Three of Them, Mother, A Confession, Okurov City, The life of a useless man


    Early Life and Childhood:

    Maxim Gorky was born as Alexei Maximovich Peshkov on 28 March 1868 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. He lost his father when he was only five years old. In 1879, Gorky became an orphan at the age of eleven and looked after by his grandmother. In 1880, he left home and after few years, Gorky attempt to suicide. In December 1887, he traveled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years. He started working as journalist under the pseudonym Jehudiel Khlamida. In 1892, he began using the pseudonym Gorky.

    Personal Life:

    In 1896, Maxim Gorky married to Yekaterina Peshkova but Divorce seven years later. In 1903, he married again to Maria Andreyeva. He had a son named Maxim Peshkov (d. May-1935).

    Later Life & Assassination:

    In 1898, Maxim Gorky published his first collection of short-stories. Gorky continued to write and his most successful novels include Three of Them (1900), Mother (1906), A Confession (1908), Okurov City (1909) and the Life of Matvey Kozhemyakin (1910). In 1902, he was elected to the Imperial Academy of Literature. He spent time as a political exile and was initially an open critic of Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Gorky later became the first president of the Union of Soviet Writers. He died suddenly while under medical treatment, possibly by the orders of Joseph Stalin on 18 June 1936. He was buried at Kremlin, Moscow, Russia.

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    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Biography
    Full Name: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
    AKA: Mustafa Kemal
    Nickname: Father of the Turks
    Father Name: Ali Ryza Efendi
    Mother Name: Zübeyde Hanim
    Wife: Latife Hanim (m. Jan 1923, div. Aug-1925)
    Date of Birth: 12 March 1881
    Birth Place: Selânik, Ottoman Empire
    Date of Death: 10 November 1938
    Death Place: Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
    Cause of Death: Cirrhosis of the Liver
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, Anitkabir Mausoleum, Ankara, Turkey
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Pisces
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Religion: Sunni Islam
    Education:
    • Kuleli Military High School
    • Monastir Military High School
    • Command and General Staff College
    • Turkish Military Academy(1899–1902)
    • Ottoman Military College(1902–1905)
    Nationality: Turkish
    Occupation: Head of State, Politician, Military
    Military Service:
    • Ottoman Empire (1893–1919)
    • Turkey (1919–1927)
    Rank: Mareşal
    Member Parliament: Member of Turkish Parliament CHP, Speaker (1920-23)
    Prime Minister: 1st Prime Minister of Turkey (03 May 1920 – 24 January 1921)
    President: 1st President of Turkey (29 October 1923 – 10 November 1938)
    Political Party:
    • Committee of Union and Progress
    • Republican People's Party
    Resting Place: Anıtkabir, Ankara, Turkey
    Major Writings: A Speech Delivered by Ghazi Mustapha Kemal, President of the Turkish Republic, October 1927, The great speech

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    Henry George Biography
    Full Name: Henry George
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Richard George
    Mother: Catherine Vallance
    Wife: Annie Corsina Fox (b. Australia, m. 3-Dec-1861)
    Son: Henry George, Jr. (b. 1862)
    Daughter: Anna Angela George (1877-1947)
    Date of Birth: 02 September 1839
    Birth Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    Date of Death: 29 October 1897
    Death Place: New York City, New York, United States
    Cause of Death: Heart Failure
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, NY
    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education: Episcopal Academy
    Nationality: United States
    Occupation: Economist, Writer
    Contributions:
    • Georgism;
    • Studied land as a factor in economic inequality and business cycles;
    • Proposed land value tax
    Major Writings:
    • Progress and Poverty (1879)
    • The Irish Land Question (1881)
    • Social Problems (1883)
    • The Land Question (1884)
    • Protection or Free Trade (1886)
    • The Condition of Labor (1891)
    • A Perplexed Philosopher (1892)
    • The Science of Political Economy (1898)
    Influenced By: John Locke, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Adam Smith, François Quesnay
    Influenced: Albert Jay Nock, John Dewey, Philip Wicksteed, Silvio Gesell, Spencer Heath, Leo Tolstoy, William Vickrey


    American writer, politician and political economist Henry George is considered as the most influential proponent of the land value tax which also known as the 'single tax' on land. He inspired the economic philosophy known as Georgism. His most famous work, Progress and Poverty was published in 1879. It is a treatise on inequality, the cyclic nature of industrialized economies and the use of the land value tax as a remedy.

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    Talcott Parsons Biography
    Full Name: Talcott Parsons
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Edward Smith Parsons
    Mother Name: Mary Augusta Ingersoll
    Wife Name: Helen Bancroft Walker
    Date of Birth: 13 December 1902
    Birth Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States
    Date of Death: 08 May 1979 (aged 76)
    Location of Death: Munich, Germany
    Cause of Death: Stroke
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, Old Burying Ground, Jaffrey Center, New Hampshire, United States

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Religion: Protestant
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • College: BA Biology, Amherst College (1924)
    • University: London School of Economics (attended, 1924-25)
    • University: PhD Economics & Sociology, University of Heidelberg (1927)
    Nationality: United States
    Occupation: Sociologist
    Influenced By:Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Alfred Marshall


    Service:
    • Lecturer: Economics, Harvard University (1927-31)
    • Teacher: Sociology, Harvard University (1931-44)
    • Professor: Sociology, Harvard University (1944-73)
    • Association President: American Sociological Association President (1949)

    Major Writings:
    • The Structure of Social Action (1937)
    • The Social System (1951)
    • Essays in Sociological Theory (1964)
    • Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966)
    • Politics and Social Structure (1969)

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    • Regarded by many as the twentieth century’s most influential American sociologist.
    • Laid the foundation for what was to become the modern functionalist perspective.
    • Developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory.

    Family:
    • Father: Edward Smith Parsons (Congregationalist minister, b. 1863, d. 1943)
    • Mother: Mary Augusta Ingersoll (b. 1863, d. 1949)
    • Brother: Charles Edward Parsons (physician)
    • Wife: Helen Bancroft Walker (m. 30-Apr-1927)
    • Daughter: Anne Parsons (anthropologist, b. 1930, d. 1964 suicide)
    • Son: Charles Dacre Parsons (philosophy professor, b. 1933)
    • Daughter: Susan Parsons Cramer (b. circa 1936)


    Talcott Parsons is considered as the most influential sociologist during much of the 20th century. He brought together the theories of French sociologist Émile Durkheim and economists Alfred Marshall, Vilfredo Pareto, Max Weber and many more. His landmark book The Structure of Social Action (1937) was influential through the 1970s. Talcott Parsons died 08 May 1979 after suffering a major stroke. He was buried at Old Burying Ground, Jaffrey Center, New Hampshire, United States.

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    Alfred Marshall Biography
    Full Name: Alfred Marshall
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: William Marshall (bank cashier)
    Mother: Rebecca Oliver
    Wife: Mary Paley (m. 17-Aug-1877)
    Date of Birth: 26 July 1842
    Birth Place: London, England
    Date of Death: 13 July 1924
    Death Place: Cambridge, England
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Remains: Buried, Ascension Parish Burial Ground, Cambridge, England

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Leo
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • High School: Merchant Taylor's School, London
    • University: St. John's College, Cambridge University
    Occupation: Economist
    Professor:
    • Professor: Political Economy, Cambridge University (1868-77)
    • Professor: University College Bristol (1877-84)
    • Professor: Political Economy, Cambridge University (1885-1908)
    Nationality: England

    Major Writings:
    • The Pure Theory of Foreign Trade: The Pure Theory of Domestic Values (1879)
    • The Economics of Industry (1879, with Mary Paley Marshall)
    • Principles of Economics (1890)
    • Industry and Trade (1919)
    • Money, Credit, and Commerce (1923)

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    • Founder of neoclassical Economics
    • Contributed to the economic welfare both producer and consumer surplus.
    • Rejected the traditional definition of economics as the "science of wealth" to establish a discipline concerned with social welfare.
    • His book 'Principles of Economics' brought out the ideas of costs production, supply and demand and marginal utility into a single whole.

    Family:
    • Father: William Marshall (bank cashier and a devout Evangelical)
    • Mother: Rebecca Oliver
    • Brother: Charles William Marshall
    • Brother: Walter (d. while student at Cambridge)
    • Sister: Agnes (b. 1846)
    • Sister: Mabel (b. 1850)
    • Wife: Mary Paley (m. 17-Aug-1877)

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    Vilfredo Pareto Biography
    Full Name: Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto
    Known AS: Vilfredo Pareto
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father Name: Raffaele Pareto (1812–1882)
    Mother Name: Marie Metenier
    Wife Name: Alessandrina Bakunin (1889)
    Date of Birth: 15 July 1848
    Birth Place: Paris, France
    Date of Death: 19 August 1923 (aged 75)
    Death Place: Céligny, Switzerland
    Cause of Death: Unspecified

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • High School: HEC Lausanne
    • University: Polytechnic University of Turin
    Occupation:Economist
    Field: Microeconomics, Socioeconomics
    Lecturer:
    • University of Florence (1886, Economics and Management)
    • University of Lausanne (1893)
    Nationality: Italian
    Influenced By:Niccolò Machiavelli, Maffeo Pantaleoni, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    1. Pareto index (a measure of the breadth of income or wealth distribution)
    2. Pareto chart (a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line)
    3. Pareto's law (closely related with the Pareto principle, the Pareto distribution)
    4. Pareto efficiency (a state of allocation of resources in which it is impossible to make any one individual better off without making at least one individual worse off)
    5. Pareto distribution (a power law probability distribution that is used in description of social, scientific, geophysical, actuarial, and many other types of observable phenomena)
    6. Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule, the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor sparsity)

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    Vladimir Nabokov Biography
    Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977)
    Full Name: Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov
    Known AS: Vladimir Nabokov
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov (politician)
    Mother: Elena Ivanovna Rukavishnikov (d. 1939)
    Wife: Véra Slonim (m. 15 April 1925)
    Date of Birth: 22 April 1899
    Birth Place: St. Petersburg, Russia
    Date of Death: 02 July 1977
    Death Place: Montreux, Switzerland
    Cause of Death: Pneumonia
    Remains/Tomb: Cremated, Cimitière de Clarens, Clarens, Switzerland

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Taurus
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Sexual Orientation: Straight
    Nationality: Russian
    Eucation:
    • College: Trinity College, Cambridge
    • University: University of Cambridge
    Occupation: Novelist, Zoologist
    Literary Movement: Modernism, Postmodernism
    Services:
    • Professor: European and Russian Literature, Wellesley College (1941-48)
    • Scholar: Lepidopterist, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (1941-48)
    • Professor: European and Russian Literature, Cornell University (1948-58)


    Major Writings/Notable Works:
    • The Defense (1930)
    • The Real Life of Sebastian Knight (1941)
    • Lolita (1955)
    • Pale Fire (1962)
    • Speak, Memory (1936–1966)

    Family:
    • Father: Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov (politician, d. 1922 murder)
    • Mother: Elena Ivanovna Rukavishnikov (d. 1939)
    • Brother: Sergei Vladimirovich Nabokov (b. 12 March 1900, d. 09 January 1945, dysentery)
    • Sister: Olga (b. 05 January 1903)
    • Sister: Elena (b. 31 March 1906)
    • Brother: Kiril Vladimirovich Nabokov (b. 1911, d. 1964)
    • Wife: Véra Slonim (b. 1902, m. 15 April 1925, d. 07 April 1991)
    • Son: Dmitri Vladimirovich Nabokov (opera singer/race car driver, b. 10 May 1934, d. 22 February 2012)

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    Virginia Woolf
    Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
    Full Name: Adeline Virginia Woolf
    Known AS: Virginia Woolf
    Nickname: Goat (when she was child)
    Father: Sir Leslie Stephen
    Mother: Julia Prinsep Duckworth
    Husband: Leonard Woolf
    Date of Birth: 25 January 1882
    Birth Place: Kensington, United Kingdom
    Date of Death: 28 March 1941 (aged 59)
    Death Place: River Ouse, Sussex, United Kingdom
    Cause of Death: Suicide
    Remains/Tomb: Cremated (ashes scattered)

    Gender: Female
    Zodiac Sign: Aquarius
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Nationality:England
    Education:
    • Primary: Educated by her parents
    • College: King's College London
    Occupation: Novelist
    Movies: Orlando, Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse, Golven, A Room of One's Own, Simple Gifts

    Major Writings:
    • The Voyage Out (1915, novel)
    • Night and Day (1919, novel)
    • Monday or Tuesday (1921, short stories)
    • Mrs. Dalloway (1925, novel)
    • To the Lighthouse (1927, novel)
    • Orlando: A Biography (1928, novel)
    • A Room of One's Own (1929, lectures)
    • The Waves (1931, novel)
    • Flush: A Biography (1933, novel)
    • Three Guineas (1938, essays)
    • Between the Acts (1941, novel)
    • The Death of the Moth: And Other Essays (1942, essays)
    • A Haunted House and Other Stories (1943, short stories)

    Family:
    • Father: Sir Leslie Stephen (literary critic, 1832-1904)
    • Mother: Julia Prinsep Duckworth (née Jackson) (1846–1895)
    • Sister: Vanessa Bell
    • Brother: Adrian
    • Brother: Thoby
    • Husband: Leonard Woolf (author and civil servant, m. 10 August 1912)


    Virginia Woolf was English novelist, essayist, publisher, critic and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929). Virginia Woolf was the author of about fifteen books, the last of which, A Writer's Diary, was published posthumously in 1953. She committed suicide in 1941.

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    Robinson Jeffers
    Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962)
    Full Name: John Robinson Jeffers
    Known AS: Robinson Jeffers
    Nickname: Didn't have Nickname
    Father: William Hamilton Jeffers (Presbyterian minister)
    Mother: Annie Robinson Tuttle
    Wife: Una Call Kuster (m. 3 Aug 1913)
    Date of Birth: 10 January 1887
    Birth Place: Allegheny, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    Date of Death: 20 January 1962
    Death Place: Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, United States
    Cause of Death: Unspecified
    Remains/Tomb: Cremated (ashes scattered)

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Capricorn
    Religion: Presbyterian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Nationality: United States
    Education:
    • College: Occidental College (1903)
    • University: University of Southern California (Literature & Medicine, 1907-10)
    • University: University of Washington (Forestry, 1910-11)
    Occupation: Poet

    Major Writings:
    • Flagons and Apples (1912, poetry)
    • Californians (1916, poetry)
    • Tamar and Other Poems (1924, poetry)
    • The Women at Point Sur (1927, poetry)
    • Cawdor and Other Poems (1928, poetry)
    • Dear Judas and Other Poems (1929, poetry)
    • Thurso's Landing and Other Poems (1932, poetry)
    • Give Your Heart to the Hawks and other Poems (1933, poetry)
    • Solstice and Other Poems (1935, poetry)
    • Such Counsels You Gave To me and Other Poems (1937, poetry)
    • Be Angry at the Sun (1941, poetry)
    • The Double Axe and Other Poems (1948, poetry)
    • Hungerfield and Other Poems (1954, poetry)
    • The Beginning and the End and Other Poems (1963, poetry)
    • Robinson Jeffers: Selected Poems (1965, poetry)

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    George Orwell
    George Orwell (1903-1950)
    Real Name: Eric Arthur Blair
    Known AS: George Orwell
    Pen Name: George Orwell
    Nickname: George Orwell
    Father Name: Richard Walmesley Blair
    Mother Name: Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin)
    Date of Birth: 25 June 1903
    Birth Place: Motihari, Bengal Presidency, British India
    Date of Death: 21 January 1950 (aged 46)
    Death Place: University College Hospital, London, England
    Cause of Death: Tuberculosis
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, All Saints Church, Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshire, England

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Nationality: England
    Eucation:
    • School: St Cyprian's School (1911–1917)
    • College: Eton College (1917–1921)
    • College: Wellington College, Berkshire (1917)
    Occupation: Novelist, Political Writer and Journalist

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    1. George Orwell is considered as one of the most influential English writers of the 20th century and most important chroniclers of English culture of his generation
    2. He wrote some of the most famous works of literature, including Homage to Catalonia (1938), Animal Farm (1945)
    3. He also wrote 1984, which is a very famous book about communism and socialism.

    Family/Relatives:
    • Father: Richard Walmesley Blair (Worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service)
    • Mother: Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin)
    • Sister: Marjorie (older)
    • Sister: Avril (younger)
    • Wife: Eileen O'Shaughnessy (m. 1936, d. 1945)
    • Son: Richard Horatio Blair (adopted, b. May-1944)
    • Wife: Sonia Brownell (m. 1949)

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    George W. Bush
    George W. Bush
    Full Name: George Walker Bush
    Known AS: George W. Bush
    List of Nicknames:
    • Shrub
    • Dubya
    • 43
    • Bush 2.0
    Father: George H.W. Bush
    Mother: Barbara Bush
    Date of Birth: 06 July 1946
    Birth Place: New Haven, Connecticut, United States

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Cancer
    Religion:
    • Episcopal (Before 1977)
    • United Methodism (1977–present)
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Education:
    • School: The Kinkaid School
    • High School: Phillips Academy Andover (1964)
    • University: BA History, Yale University (1968)
    • University: MBA, Harvard Business School (1975)
    Occupation:Head of State
    Military Service:
    • Texas Air National Guard
    • Alabama Air National Guard
    Rank: First Lieutenant
    Years of Service: 1968–1974
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: 43rd US President, 2001-09

    AS President:
    In Office: 20 January 2001 – 20 January 2009
    Political Party: Republican
    Preceded By:Bill Clinton
    Succeeded By:Barack Obama

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    1. George Bush was 43rd US President
    2. Hestarted foundations for helping find abducted children
    3. He lead America to a war in Iraq called the desert storm

    Family/Relatives:
    • Father: George H.W. Bush (41st US President, 1989-93)
    • Mother: Barbara Bush (b. 08 Jun 1925)
    • Brother: Jeb Bush (former Governor of Florida)
    • Brother: Neil Bush
    • Brother: Marvin Bush
    • Sister: Doro Bush
    • Sister: Robin Bush (b. 20-Dec-1949, d. 11-Oct-1953)
    • Wife: Laura Bush (m. 5-Nov-1977 in Midland, TX)
    • Daughter: Jenna Bush (b. 25-Nov-1981)
    • Daughter: Barbara Bush (b. 25-Nov-1981)

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    Bill Clinton
    Bill Clinton
    Full Name: William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton
    Birth Name: William Jefferson Blythe III
    Known AS: Bill Clinton
    List of Nicknames:
    • Bill
    • Slick Willie
    • The Man From Hope
    • Teflon Bill
    • The Compromiser in Chief
    • The Comeback Kid
    Father: William Jefferson Blythe II
    Stepfather: Roger Clinton (1908 — 1967)
    Mother: Virginia Dell Cassidy (1923–1994)
    Wife:Hillary Clinton (m. 11 Oct 1975)
    Date of Birth: 19 August 1946
    Birth Place: Hope, Arkansas, United States

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Leo
    Religion: Baptist
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Eucation:
    • School: St. John's Catholic Elementary School
    • School: Ramble Elementary School
    • High School: Hot Springs High School(1964)
    • University: Georgetown University (Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service)
    • University: University College, Oxford (Philosophy, Politics and Economics)
    • Law School: Yale Law School (Juris Doctor (J.D.), 1970–1973)
    Occupation: Head of State
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: 42nd US President, 1993-2001

    Attorney General of Arkansas (50th):
    • In Office: 03 January 1977 – 09 January 1979
    Governor of Arkansas (40th and 42nd):
    • In Office: 09 January 1979 – 19 January 1981
    • In Office: 11 January 1983 – 12 December 1992

    President of the United States (42nd):
    • Political Party: Democratic Party
    • In Office: 20 January 1993 – 20 January 2001
    • Vice President: Al Gore
    • Preceded By: George H. W. Bush
    • Succeeded By:George W. Bush

    Best Known For:
    1. Bill Clinton was the 42nd president of the United States for two terms from 1993 to 2001
    2. He was also the governor of the state of Arkansas (40th and 42nd)
    3. He left office with the top end of office approval rating of any U.S. president since World War II

    Author of Books:
    • Putting People First: How We Can All Change America (1992, politics)
    • My Life (2004)

    Family/Relatives:
    • Father: William Jefferson Blythe II
    • Stepfather: Roger Clinton (1908 — 1967)
    • Mother: Virginia Dell Cassidy (1923–1994)
    • Brother: Roger Clinton (half-brother, b. 25-Jul-1956)
    • Wife:Hillary Clinton (US Senator, Secretary of State, m. 11 Oct 1975, one daughter)
    • Daughter: Chelsea Clinton (b. 27-Feb-1980)

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    Hillary Rodham Clinton
    Hillary Rodham Clinton
    Full Name: Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton
    Birth Name: Hillary Diane Rodham
    Known AS: Hillary Clinton
    Nickname: Hillary
    Father: Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911–1993)
    Mother: Dorothy Emma Howell (1919–2011)
    Husband:Bill Clinton (m. 11 Oct 1975)
    Date of Birth: 26 October 1947
    Birth Place: Chicago, Illinois, United States

    Gender: Female
    Zodiac Sign: Scorpio
    Religion: Methodism
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Politician, First Lady
    Party Affiliation: Democratic
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: US Secretary of State, 2009-13

    Education:
    • High School: Maine East High School (1964)
    • High School: Maine South High School (1964–1965)
    • College: Wellesley College (Political Science, 1965–1969)
    • Law School: Yale Law School (1969–1973)

    First Lady of Arkansas:

    1st Time:
    • In office: 09 January 1979 – 19 January 1981
    • Governor:Bill Clinton
    • Preceded By: Barbara Pryor
    • Succeeded By: Gay Daniels White
    2nd Time:
    • In office: 11 January 1983 – 12 December 1992
    • Governor:Bill Clinton
    • Preceded By: Gay Daniels White
    • Succeeded By: Betty Tucker

    First Lady of the United States:
    • In Office: 20 January 1993 – 20 January 2001
    • President:Bill Clinton
    • Preceded By: Barbara Bush
    • Succeeded By: Laura Bush

    United States Senator from New York:
    • In Office: 03 January 2001 – 21 January 2009

    United States Secretary of State (67th):
    • In Office: 21 January 2009 – 01 February 2013
    • President:Barack Obama
    • Preceded By: Condoleezza Rice
    • Succeeded By:John Kerry

    Best Known For:
    • First Lady of the United States (20 January 1993 – 20 January 2001)
    • Senator of New York (03 January 2001 – 21 January 2009)
    • Secretary of United State (21 January 2009 – 01 February 2013)
    • Presidential candidate

    Author of Books:
    • It Takes a Village (1996, non-fiction)
    • Dear Socks, Dear Buddy (1998, children's book)
    • An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History (2000, non-fiction)
    • Living History (2003, autobiography)

    Family/Relatives:
    • Father: Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (small business in the textile industry, 1911–1993)
    • Mother: Dorothy Emma Howell (homemaker, 1919–2011)
    • Brother: Hugh E. Rodham, Jr. (attorney, b. 1950)
    • Brother: Anthony Rodham (insurance salesman, b. 1954)
    • Husband:Bill Clinton (42nd U.S. President, m. 11 Oct 1975)
    • Daughter: Chelsea Clinton (b. 27 Feb 1980)

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    John Kerry
    John Kerry
    Full Name: John Forbes Kerry
    Known AS: John Kerry
    Nickname: Don't have
    Father: Richard Kerry (1915–2000)
    Mother: Rosemary Forbes Kerry (1913–2002)
    Date of Birth: 11 December 1943
    Birth Place: Aurora, Colorado, United States

    Gender: Male
    Height: 6' 4" (1.93 m)
    Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius
    Religion: Roman Catholic
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Occupation:Politician
    Party Affiliation: Democratic
    Nationality: United States
    Executive Summary: 68th United States Secretary of State

    Education:
    • School: Fessenden School
    • High School: St. Paul's School (1962)
    • University: Yale University (Political Science, 1962–1966)
    • Law School: Boston College Law School (1973–1976)

    Military Service:
    • Years of Service: 1966–1978
    • Allegiance: United States of America
    • Service/Branch: United States Navy
    • Rank: Lieutenant

    Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts (66th):
    • In Office: 06 March 1983 – 02 January 1985

    Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations:
    • In Office: 06 January 2009 – 01 February 2013
    • Preceded By: Joe Biden
    • Succeeded By: Bob Menendez

    United States Senator from Massachusetts:
    • In Office: 03 January 1985 – 01 February 2013
    • Preceded By: Paul Tsongas
    • Succeeded By: Mo Cowan

    US Secretary of State (68th):

    Best Known For:
    1. John Kerry is the 68th United States Secretary of State
    2. He is famous for running for presidency of the US in 2004 to George W. Bush
    3. He served as US Senator from Massachusetts from 03 January 1985 – 01 February 2013

    Family/Relatives:
    • Father: Richard Kerry (Foreign Service Officer, 1915–2000)
    • Mother: Rosemary Forbes Kerry (World War II nurse, 1913–2002)
    • Sister: Peggy (works at United Nations, b. 11 Nov 1941)
    • Brother: Cameron Kerry
    • Sister: Diana (b. 16 Apr 1947)
    • Wife: Julie Stimson Thorne (m. 23 May 1970, sep. 1982, div. 1988, annulled 1997, d. 2006)
    • Daughter: Alexandra (b. 1973)
    • Daughter: Vanessa (b. 1976)
    • Wife: Teresa Heinz (heiress to part of Heinz fortune, m. 26 May 1995)
    • Son: John (stepson)
    • Son: Andre (stepson)
    • Son: Christopher (stepson)

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    John Dalton
    John Dalton (1766-1844)
    Full Name: John Dalton
    List of Nicknames:
    • J-dog
    • Jonny d
    • John nye the science guy
    • The father of modern atomic theory
    Father Name: Joseph Dalton (weaver)
    Mother Name: Deborah Greenup
    Wife Name: Never Married
    Date of Birth: 06 September 1766
    Birth Place: Eaglesfield, Cumbria, United Kingdom
    Date of Death: 27 July 1844 (aged 77)
    Death Place: Manchester, United Kingdom
    Cause of Death: Stroke
    Remains/Tomb: Buried, Ardwick Cemetery, Ardwick, Lancashire, England

    Gender: Male
    Zodiac Sign: Virgo
    Religion: Quaker
    Race or Ethnicity: White
    Marital Status: Dalton was never married
    Education: John Fletcher's Quaker grammar school
    Occupation:
    • Chemist, Physicist
    • Professor: Manchester College, Oxford University
    Nationality: England
    Executive Summary: Early proponent of Atomic Theory

    Best Known For/Contributions:
    1. John Dalton was called The father of modern atomic theory.
    2. Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
    3. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other properties.
    4. Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
    5. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
    6. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
    7. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged.

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